The OCR spec says "(i) describe one example of primary succession resulting in a climax community;"
I know the textbook gives the example of a sand dune but I was wondering if there is a more simple (and hopefully less tedious) example of succession.
After a volcanic eruption pioneer community of algae and lichen colonise bare rock. The rock erodes and organic matter (of dead and rotting organisms) builds up and forming enough soil for larger plants (mosses and ferns) to grow. Roots stabalise the soil structure. These succeed the pioneer community. Even larger plans succeed theses smaller plants, the diversity of species increases until a climax community (often a woodland) is reached.