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Mt Etna 1991-1993

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    Has anyone got a case study on the eruption of Mt Etna over the period 91-93?
    Specifically, I need to know about the impacts of the event...I can't find anything anywhere!

    Thanks a lot
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    there are general impacts from the eruptions such as destruction of fertile land used for farming, destroying crops and causing unemployment and increased food prices. Also, infrastructure is sometimes effected such as electricity cables being destroyed and roads and railways being made inaccesible.
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    I'm having the same problem here!
    the only sentence I got is that few buildings were destroyed!!
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    Seeing as people haven't taken the exam yet and so this information is relevant I thought I would bump the thread. (Came accross it in a google search for the same subject). Anyway this is what I have on sheet from my teacher.

    Eruptions (1991-1993)
    Towards the end of 1991, lava began to pour from vents high on the eastern flank of the volcano in the Valle del Bove, and to advance on the settlement of Zafferana. A series of protective measures was introduced to halt the lava flow, or at least slow its speed:
    • A large earth barrier was constructed across the end of the Val Calenna at the southern end of the Valle del Bove. This was several tens of metres high and more than 400 m long and it held back the lava for several months. The aim was to slow the lava advance temporarily while other protective measures were put in place or the eruption ended.

    • During the spring of 1992, the accumulated lava began to spill over this barrier and down into the valley leading to Zafferana. Small barriers erected across the valley were rapidly overwhelmed by the advancing lava which destroyed orchards and a few small buildings.

    • It was decided to cut off the flow by blocking the primary feeder channel. This was first attempted by dropping concrete blocks from helicopters through the roof of the upper lava tube.

    • Finally, in May 1992, engineers blasted openings in the lava tube. This was to encourage a new direction of flow, partly on top of the existing flow, rather than feeding it. The lava front stopped advancing on Zafferana, and the eruption ended 10 months later in early 1993.


    Although it was probably the most successful attempt at changing the course of a volcanic eruption at that time, there remain doubts as to whether the flow would have reached Zafferana anyway.
    The success of the above scheme was based upon the following favourable factors:
    • Low effusion rates during the eruption.
    • High elevation of the eruptive vents. These were between 2,200 and 2,350 m in altitude and therefore well away from inhabited areas. The lava had to flow more than 8 km before it became a serious threat.
    • The possibility of diverting the lava flow into uninhabited areas (at least 7 km from the nearest village).

    Sorry I don't have any info on the impacts of the eruption but thought I would post that as it is better than nothing.
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    I'd say there were very few particularly major impacts of the volcano for the area. Some small buildings and orchards were detroyed and i assume some fertile agricultural land was destroyed, but this would have only been land on the slopes of the volcano. The earth barrier and smaller barriers would also have been destroyed when the lava spilt over them, but this is about it.
    There aren't many major impacts because it occured in an MEDC and so there is good planning in place and the money to prevent greater damage (which was the barriers and concrete blocks etc) and so damage was relatively minor. Also i don't think Mt.Etna is a particularly explosive volcano, it's quite gentle to compared to many out there. Monitoring is also in place so the eruption could have been predicted and people given adequate warning, so no fatalities.
    However, if you compare this to a contrasting eruption such as the Soufriere Hills eruption in Montserrat 1995-1997. This was an LEDC with little planning, monitoring or preventative measures and so impacts were MUCH greater, check your aqa textbook for the case study
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    You can talk about that in 2002 there was another eruption where a ski resort was destroyed.

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