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Edexcel A2 Government & Politics route B: Political ideologies

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    Hi, has anyone got loads of past paper questions for this paper? Even though marks are awarded differently in the new paper, the questions haven't changed drastically from those set in legacy past paper questions, so if anyone has them it would be useful! Thanks
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    Are you looking for Unit 3 or 4 questions?
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    Yep
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    Liberalism:

    OLD A2 LIBERALISM QUESTIONS
    Short Answers
    1. Why do liberals support constitutionalism and consent? (Jan 02)

    2. Distinguish between negative freedom and positive freedom, and explain the
    implications of each for the state. (Jun 02)

    3. Outline a liberal defence of toleration and pluralism. (Jun 02)

    4. What kind of equality do liberals support, and why? (Jan 03)

    5. Distinguish between individualism and collectivism, and explain the implications
    of each for the state. (Jan 03)

    6. On what grounds do liberals support democracy? (June 03)

    7. Why do liberals fear concentrations of power? (Jan 04)

    8. Why do modern liberals support social reform and welfare? (June 04)

    9. Define individualism, and explain its implications for the state. (June 04)

    10. Distinguish between socialist and liberal views of equality. (Jan 05)

    11. Why do liberals emphasis the importance of constitutionalism and consent? (June 05)

    12. Distinguish between positive freedom and negative freedom, and explain the
    implications of each for the state. (June 05)

    13. Distinguish between economic liberalism and social liberalism. (Jan 06)

    14. Why have liberals criticised the socialist view of equality? (June 06)

    15. Define ‘positive freedom’, and explain its implication for the state. (June 06)

    16. On what grounds have liberals raised concerns about democracy? (Jan 07)

    17. How and why have conservatives and liberals disagreed over authority? (Jan 07)

    18. Define individualism and explain its importance within liberal ideology (June 07)

    19. Why have liberals feared the concentration of political power? (Jan 08)

    20. Why have some liberals warned against the dangers of democracy? (Jun 08)

    21. Using examples, distinguish between negative freedom and positive freedom. (Jun 08)
    22. How do modern liberals justify welfare and social reform? (Jan 09)

    23. Define individualism, and explain its implications for the state (Jan 09)

    24. Why have some liberals warned against the dangers of democracy? (June 09)

    25. Using examples, distinguish between negative freedom and positive freedom. (June 09)

    Essays
    1. How, and to what extent, have modern liberals departed from the ideas of classical
    liberalism? (Jan 02)

    2. To what extent is liberalism compatible with democracy? (Jun 02)

    3. ‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.’ Why do liberals
    believe this, and what are its implications? (Jan 03)

    4. Have modern liberals abandoned individualism and embraced collectivism?(June03)

    5. To what extent are there tensions within modern liberalism over the role of the state? (Jan 04)

    6. 'Liberal democracy is a contradiction in terms. ' Discuss. (June 04)

    7. Analyse similarities and differences between classical liberalism and modern liberalism.
    (Jan 05)
    8. To what extent is liberalism compatible with democracy (June 05)

    9. Why do liberals support toleration and diversity, and on what grounds would they
    limit toleration? (Jan 06)

    10. ‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.’ Explain and
    discuss the implications of this view for liberalism. (June 06)

    11. Modern liberals support state intervention, but only within limits. Discuss (Jan 07)

    12. ‘The similarities between classical liberalism and modern liberalism are greater
    than the differences.’ Discuss (June 07)

    13. ‘Liberals support equality, but only a qualified form of equality.’ Discuss (Jan 08)

    14. Why, and to what extent, have liberals supported toleration and diversity? (Jun 08)

    15. Why do liberals support the principle of limited government, and do they propose
    that it be achieved? (Jan 09)

    16. Why, and to what extent, have liberals supported toleration and diversity? (June 09)
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    Conservativism:

    CONSERVATISM QUESTIONS – A2 (UNIT 4)
    Short Answers
    1. How do traditional conservatives and the New Right differ in their views of
    society? (Jan 02)

    2. Why, and to what extent, do conservatives value tradition? (Jun 02)

    3. Why have conservatives feared moral and cultural diversity? (Jan 03)

    4. Distinguish between a socialist and a conservative view of human nature. (June 03)

    5. Why has the New Right advocated rolling back the state? (June 03)

    6. Why do conservatives believe that human nature is imperfect? (Jan 04)

    7. How have conservatives justified private property? (Jun04)

    8. On what grounds have conservatives supported authority? (Jan 05)

    9. Distinguish between a traditional conservative and a New Right view of
    society? (Jun 05)

    10. In what sense is conservatism a philosophy of human imperfection? (Jan 06)

    11. Why do traditional conservatives and the New Right disagree in their view of
    the individual? (June 06)

    12. How and why have conservatives and liberals disagreed over authority? (Jan 07)

    13. How and why have conservatives and liberals disagreed over authority? (Jan 07)

    14. Distinguish between the liberal New Right and the conservative New Right.
    (June 07)

    15. Distinguish between a socialist and a conservative view of human nature.(June 07)

    16. On what grounds have conservatives defended private property? (Jan 08)

    17. How, and why, have conservatives objected to social equality? (Jun 08)

    18. Why have conservatives been concerned about moral and cultural diversity?
    (Jan 09)

    19. How do the New Right and traditional conservative views of society differ?
    (June 09)



    Essays
    1. To what extent is conservatism a philosophy of human imperfection? (Jan 02)

    2. To what extent is there tension in conservatism between its commitment to the
    individual and its support for community? (Jun 02)

    3. ‘Conservatism is defined by its defence of tradition and continuity.’ Explain, and
    discuss the extent to which this remains true. (Jan 03)

    4. Has conservatism been more concerned with social stability than with economic
    freedom? (June 03)

    5. To what extent have conservatives preferred pragmatism to principle? (Jan 04)

    6. 'Conservatism has always been characterised by tension between paternalism and
    libertarianism. ' Discuss. (Jun 04)

    7. Why, and to what extent, have conservatives supported 'One Nation' principles?
    (Jan 05)

    8. Why, and to what extent, have conservatives been committed to tradition and
    continuity? (June 05)

    9. To what extent is there continuity between traditional conservatism and the New
    Right? (Jan 06)

    10. ‘Conservatism is merely ruling class ideology.’ Discuss. (June 06)

    11. To what extent are there tensions within conservatism over its support for the
    individual and its commitment to community? (Jan 07)

    12. Why, and to what extent, have conservatives placed faith in pragmatism rather
    than principle? (June 07)

    13. To what extent have conservatives supported ‘free market’ capitalism? (Jan 08)

    14. Why have conservatives supported tradition and continuity, and to what extent do
    they continue to do so? (June 08)

    15. ‘Conservatism is a philosophy of human imperfection.’ Discuss. (Jan 09)

    16. Why, and to what extent, have conservatives supported One Nation
    principles? (June 09)
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    Socialism:

    SOCIALISM QUESTIONS – A2 (UNIT 4)
    Short Answers
    1. What kind of equality do socialists support, and why? (Jan 02)

    2. Why, and in what ways, have socialists supported collectivism? (Jun 02)

    3. Distinguish between fundamentalist socialism and revisionist socialism. (Jan 03)

    4. Distinguish between individualism and collectivism, and explain the implications
    of each for the state. (Jan 03)

    5. Distinguish between a socialist and a conservative view of human nature. (June 03)

    6. Why did Marx proclaim the need for a dictatorship of the proletariat? (June 03)

    8. Why, and to what extent, have socialists favoured common ownership? (Jan 04)

    9. Why did Marx believe that the state would 'wither away'? (Jan 04)

    10. How did Lenin's theory of the party revise the ideas of Marx? (June 04)

    11. Using examples, distinguish between individualism and collectivism. (Jan 05)

    13. Why have socialists supported collectivism, and how have they sought to
    promote it? (June 05)

    14. Define collectivism, and explain its implications for the state. (Jan 06)

    15. Why did Marx believe that a proletarian revolution was inevitable? (Jan 06)

    16. Why have liberals criticised the socialist view of equality? (June 06)

    17. Distinguish between fundamentalist socialism and revisionist socialism.
    (June 06)

    18. Why did Marx predict the ‘withering away’ of the state? (Jan 07)

    19. How did Lenin’s theory of the party revise the ideas of Marx (June 07)

    20. Distinguish between a socialist and a conservative view of human nature.
    (June 07)

    21. How, and why, has collectivism been associated with a wider role for the state?
    (Jan 08)

    22. What is the dictatorship of the proletariat, and why have Marxists thought it is
    necessary? (Jan 08)

    23. Why did Marx believe that capitalism was doomed to collapse, and how would
    this occur? (June 08)
    24. Why have socialists favoured cooperation over competition? (Jan 09)

    25. Why have socialists criticised the liberal view of equality? (June 09)

    26. Why have Marxists predicted that the state would ‘wither away’? (June 09)

    Essays
    1. ‘Evolutionary and revolutionary socialists disagree about both ends and
    means.’ Discuss. (Jan 02)

    2. Explain the main features of Marx’s theory of history. (Jun 02)

    3. To what extent did 20th century communism depart from the ideas of Marx?
    (Jan 03)

    4. 'The history of socialism has been marked by a retreat from traditional
    principles.' Discuss. (June 03)

    5. 'A commitment to equality is the core feature of socialism.' Discuss. (Jan 04)

    6. To what extent has socialism been defined by its opposition to capitalism? (June 04)

    7. Why did socialists believe in gradualism, and why has gradualism failed? (Jan 05)

    8. 'Socialists have disagreed about both the means and ends of socialism.'
    Discuss. (June 05)

    9. ‘All socialists have supported equality but they have supported different
    kinds of equality.’ Discuss. (Jan 06)

    10. To what extent did twentieth-century communism depart from the classical
    ideas of Marx? (June 06)

    11. Why, and to what extent, have socialists supported the common ownership of
    wealth? (Jan 07)

    12. ‘A retreat from core values and goals has been a continuing feature of the history
    of socialism.’ Discuss (June 07)

    13. Why did democratic socialists believe in the ‘inevitability of gradualism’, and
    why did gradualism fail? (Jan 08)

    14. ‘Communism and social democracy offer starkly different models of socialism.’
    Discuss. (Jun 08)

    15. Is socialism defined by the rejection of private property? (Jan 09)

    23. Why have some socialists advocated revolution, and what difficulties has revolutionary socialism encountered? (June 09)
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    ANARCHISM QUESTIONS – Old A2

    Short Answers
    1. Outline how the anarchist view of the state differs from the Marxist view. (Jun 02)

    2. Explain the link between anarchism and collectivism. (June 03)

    3. Why do anarchists object to constitutionalism and consent? (June 04)

    4. Why have anarchists believed that the state is unnecessary? (June 05)

    5. Explain the link between anarchism and utopianism. (June 06)

    6. Why have anarchists viewed the state as evil and oppressive? (June 07)

    7. How do the anarchist and Marxist views of the state differ? (June 08)

    8. How has anarchism been linked to ‘free market’ capitalism? (June 09)


    Essays
    1. Is anarchism an example of individualism or collectivism? (Jun 02)

    2. To what extent is anarchism a utopian creed? (June 03)

    3. To what extent do anarchists agree about the nature of the future stateless society?
    (June 04)

    4. Is anarchism closer to socialism or liberalism? (June 05)

    5. Is anarchism merely an extreme form of free-market liberalism? (June 06)

    6. Is anarchism closer to individualism than collectivism? (June 08)

    7. Why, and to what extent, has anarchism been associated with utopianism? (June 09)




    ANARCHISM QUESTIONS – OLD ‘A’ LEVEL
    Short Answers
    1. (a) Define utopianism
    (b) Why is anarchism considered to be utopian? (Jun 01)

    2. Outline differences between the anarchist and conservative views of human nature.
    (Jun 00)

    3. How do conservative and anarchist views of human nature differ? (Jan 99)

    4. (a) Why do anarchists reject the state?
    (b) What kind of state have Marxists been prepared to endorse? (Jun 98)

    5. (a) Why do conservatives value authority?
    (b) Why do anarchists reject authority? (Jan 98)

    6. (a) Define utopianism
    (b) Why is anarchism often described as utopian? (Jun 97)

    Essays
    1. ‘Anarchism has offered many visions of the future stateless society.’ Discuss
    (Jun 01)

    2. To what extent is anarchism a utopian political creed? (Jun 00)

    3. (a) Why do anarchists oppose all forms of political authority?
    (b) Explain and critically assess their belief that a stateless society would be peaceful
    and orderly. (Jan 00)

    4. ‘Anarchism is strong on moral principles but weak on political analysis.’ Discuss
    (Jun 99)

    5. Is anarchism merely collectivism taken to its logical extreme? (Jan 99)

    6. Do anarchists demand the impossible? (Jun 98)

    7. ‘Anarchism is merely nineteenth-century liberalism taken to its extreme.’ Discuss
    (Jan 98)

    8. Is anarchism an example of collectivism or individualism? (Jun 97)
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    I have some unit 4 ones too but need to type them up so may take me a while.
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    Thanks!
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    thats genius dude, thanks so much
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    (Original post by rainbowworld)
    I have some unit 4 ones too but need to type them up so may take me a while.
    if you could that would be so awesome! cheeeeers
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    Yess unit 4 questions would be brilliant! Thank you!
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    (Original post by rainbowworld)
    Are you looking for Unit 3 or 4 questions?
    (Original post by m2dab)
    thats genius dude, thanks so much
    I am liking the amount of Nottingham Firmers in this thread:p:

    im very worried though about this exam, i just feel there is too much to revise and wont know all of it in time
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    That's because Nottingham rules!

    Yes same, especially as I can't start revising for it until monday and I have 4 exams to revise for at the same time so I have limited time to revise it! AAHH!

    I will type up the unit 4 ones everyone but bare with me until monday as I have an exam monday morning so am super busy atm. I'll get them up monday/tuesday though.
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    (Original post by gunners r us)
    I am liking the amount of Nottingham Firmers in this thread:p:
    Nottingham firmers that are also arsenal fans, woooo!

    Also, how is everyone actually revising for these exams? im doing like an hour of reading and an hour of notes in the morning, then and hour of 15 markers and then an essay in the afternoon but im just starting today, hopefully should be enough.
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    (Original post by m2dab)
    Nottingham firmers that are also arsenal fans, woooo!

    Also, how is everyone actually revising for these exams? im doing like an hour of reading and an hour of notes in the morning, then and hour of 15 markers and then an essay in the afternoon but im just starting today, hopefully should be enough.
    i plan to read and write notes from textbook, then type those notes. Then condense the typed notes to revision cards just putting in the important words/phrases.
    Then will do some practise questions or just do loads of essay plans

    i doubt i will have time to do all of that though
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    I've already typed up notes from the text book a while ago, so I'm just going over them and using them to write indepth essay plans for 45 markers.
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    which text book are you usin
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    Andrew Heywood.
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    oh yh thats what im usin or do you think the revision guide revision notes political ideologies by daniel woodley would be enough

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