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OCR 21st Century Science A Core - Ideas In Context

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    Hi, My Name's Majid And I've Just Recently Joined

    Really Like This Website!!

    Anyway, I thought i'd post a thread incase any of you are doing the dreaded Ideas In context for core science

    I've had a look around and there are only posts for Additional science (Which i'm doing as well) :eek:

    But i figured what the heck i might as well post some questions to help any of you doing the core one to. :cool:

    So..

    Here are the questions:

    For the Chemistry C3 article:


    Are Organic Foods Better for us?

    1.What are "organic foods"?
    2.List the similarities and differences between organic and intensive farming?
    3.What does a farmer have to do to claim his food as organic?
    4.How do both types of farmers make sure their soil is fertile?
    5.What do you think the sentence "Organic food has been a success story" mean?
    6.What do you think people mean when they say organic food is "more natural"?
    7.What is a pesticide?
    8.What is meant by the term "pesticides residues"?
    9.What is meant by the word "nutritious"?
    10.Why do you think "sales of organic food are likely to fall" during this year?
    11.Who is the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and what do they do?
    12.What is an "Independent Study"?
    13.What make a good study?
    14.Do you think the study mentioned in the article and carried out by the FSA was a good study? Why/not?
    15.What did the FSA find out from their study?
    16.Does the evidence from the French and Swedish studies make the FSA's study more reliable? How?
    17.What is called when other scientists look at a scientist's work?
    18.What information do you need to have to compare the FSA's study with the French and Swedish studies?
    19.What does the word "Yield" mean?
    20.What two things can reduce yield?
    21.What does the article mean when it says "Pesticides are approved"? Who do yo think approves them?
    22.What does the term "Rigorously assessed" mean?
    23.What does the term "Pose an unacceptable risk to human health" mean?
    24.What does the word "Consumers" mean?
    25.What is a food chain? - What does it show?
    26.What does the word "Detectable" mean?
    27.Give an example of a "Natural Predator.. used to control insect pests"
    28.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using natural predators to control pests?
    29.How can intensive farmers reduce pesticide residues?
    30.What does the word "Concentration" mean?
    31.Looking at the data in the table (look at article for this) ; What is the range of the organically green tomatoes?
    32.Which is the outlier in the intensively grown tomatoes? Why?
    33.Looking at the evidence given in the article, why do you think people buy organic food?

    *Answering all these questions will guarantee you an A*

    I'll post questions to the article Methane from the arctic and Pump-Head Syndrome Later!!

    Tired from all the typing lol! But as long as it helps you!!

    Majid
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    Does anyone have the answers for these questions?

    Thanks a lot=)
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    Are There Answers Anywhere For It????
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    answeersss
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    Year 10 Ideas in Context June 2011
    Article 3:
    “Are organic foods better for us?”
    (C3 Food matters)

    • List the similarities and differences between organic and intensive farming.
    Diffs:
    O. minimal artificial chemicals
    I. more artificial chemicals
    O. pests controlled using natural predators
    I. pests controlled with pesticides
    O. crop rotation and manure used to maintain soil fertility
    I. fertilisers used to maintain soil fertility
    O. tend to be smaller farms with more hedges
    I. tend to be larger farms with fewer hedges
    Sims:
    Farmer seeks to maximise yield and profit
    Nutrients must be replaced in soil after harvesting
    Pests and diseases must be controlled
    • What does a farmer have to do to claim his food as organic?
    Become certified and show he/she is using minimum possible levels of artificial chemicals.
    • Why do all farmers need to put nutrients into the soil, even though nobody puts nutrients into the soil in a rainforest?
    When crops are harvested, nutrients are removed. In a rainforest, when plants or animals die or produce waste, the nutrients in them are returned to the soil.
    • How do organic and intensive farmers make sure their soil is fertile?
    (see above)
    • “Organic food has been a success story.” What does this sentence mean?
    Sales “worth more than £2 billion in 2007 in the UK alone”
    • What do you think people mean when they say organic food is “more natural”?
    They think that there are no artificial chemicals used
    They think it more closely resembles how plants grow “in nature” (i.e. without humans involved
    • What is a pesticide?
    A chemical used to control pests that could damage crops
    • What is meant by the term “pesticides residues”?
    The remaining pesticide chemicals on foods which are sold to consumers
    • What is meant by the word “nutritious”?
    Containing high levels of nutrients
    • Why do you think “sales of organic food are likely to fall” during this year?
    Because people “have less money to spend” due to the recession
    • What is the FSA and what do they do?
    The Food Standards Agency is an independent body set up by an Act of Parliament to monitor the production and sale of food and offer advice to the public of food health and safety
    • What is an “independent study”?
    A piece of research carried out by somebody not associated with the FSA
    • List the features of a good study.
    Large sample size, good random sampling method, carried out over a long period of time, control groups to clearly identify correlations
    • What evidence was this study based on?
    Research published over the last 50 years of the different nutrient levels found in crops, and of the possible health benefits of organic food.
    • Do you think the study funded by the FSA was a good study? Explain your answer.
    (up to student) Reviewed evidence over a large period of time.
    • What was the conclusion of the study?
    There is “no good evidence that organic food is better than non-organic food,” and, “there is little, if any, nutritional difference between organic and intensively produced food”
    • Even though the evidence shows there is more phosphorous in organic food, why does this not make organic food much better for you?
    Because “the diet of most people contains enough phosphorous”
    • Does the evidence from the French and Swedish studies make the FSA study more reliable? Why?
    It would appear so. The French study also concluded there was no difference in terms of nutrition, and the Swedish study showed no nutritional benefits from organic food.
    • What the name of the process where scientists look at each other’s work before it is published?
    Peer review
    • What more information would you need to compare the FSA study with the French and Swedish studies?
    The length of each study and the number of pieces of evidence that each one reviewed. If the Swedish study was a review or a single piece of research.
    • What does the word “yield” mean?
    The amount of product made
    • Give at least two examples of things that can reduce yield.
    Disease, pests, drought, lack of nutrients
    • What does the article mean when it says “pesticides are approved”? Who do you think approves them?
    Allowed to be used legally because they are safe. The FSA
    • What does the term “rigorously assessed” mean?
    Thoroughly tested
    • What does the term “pose an unacceptable risk to human health” mean?
    That there is evidence that people may become unwell after coming into contact with a chemical
    • What does the word “consumers” mean?
    The people who buy and eat food (not something above a producer in a food chain!)
    • What is a food chain? What does it show?
    A list of plants and animals showing how energy is passed from one organism to another in an ecosystem
    • Explain how it would be possible for chemicals sprayed onto crops to build up in the bodies of different animals in a food chain.
    Each consumer eats a larger mass of the organisms below it in the food chain, so any chemicals in them become more concentrated at each stage in the food chain
    • Even though pesticide levels are monitored to make sure they are safe, it is generally recommended that fruit and vegetables are washed before use. This is an example of what principle?
    The precautionary principle
    • Give an example of a “natural predator… used to control insect pests.”
    Ladybirds eating greenfly
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using natural predators to control pests?
    Advantage – no pesticide residues, and no pesticides in soil
    Disadvantage – natural predator may eat other species and disrupt the local food web in unpredictable ways
    • How can intensive farmers reduce pesticide residues?
    Carefully controlling the amount of chemical sprayed
    Adjust how long before harvesting pesticides are sprayed
    • What does the word “concentration” mean?
    The amount of a chemical in a particular volume
    • Look at the data in the table. For the two types of tomatoes, write down (including the units):
    - The range of each set of measurements.
    Organic: 19.5 to 19.9 mg / 100g
    Intensive: 19.7 to 20.2 mg / 100g
    - Any outliers in either set of data.
    Organic: none
    Intensive: Sample 4 (19.2 mg / 100g)
    - The mean of each set of data.
    Organic: 19.7 mg / 100g
    Intensive: 19.9 mg / 100g
    • Why did they conclude that there was not a real difference between the vitamin C content of the two sets of data?
    Because the ranges overlap, and both means are within the range of the other set of measurements
    • Looking at the evidence given in the article, why do you think people buy organic food?
    They think it is more natural, they believe it is more healthy and better for the environment, they believe if they pay more they are getting a ‘better’ product, they are concerned about animal welfare (not mentioned in article!)
    • If people avoid intensively grown food because they are worried about pesticide residues, which principle are they using?
    The precautionary principle
    • Which principle does the FSA use when setting minimum legal amounts of pesticide residues for foods?
    The ALARA principle
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    Physics - Methane from the arctic article

    1.What is global warming?
    2.List the greenhouse gases.
    3.What does the word consequences mean?
    4.What gases are found in the Earth’s atmosphere?
    5.What could be the “consequences of continued global warming”?
    6.Why do you think the amount of carbon dioxide released has risen over the past 200 years?
    7.What elements are present in the compound methane?
    8.How does methane contribute to global warming?
    9.How much has the amount of methane risen by over the past 200 years?
    10.How is most methane produced?
    11.Where is most methane produced?
    12.Where is the Arctic?
    13.What country is Fairbanks in?
    14.What made scientists investigate lakes in Alaska?
    15.What did Professor Walter find?
    16.Who else (and in what country were they) found the same type of thing?
    17.What happens to the ground in Alaska in the summer?
    18.What is permafrost?
    19.What does permafrost have in it?
    20.How long have the things stored in the permafrost been there?
    21.What happens when the climate warms?
    22.What effect does this have on the permafrost?
    23.What do the micro-organisms do and why is this a problem?
    24.Why is global warming increasing the seriousness of methane being released?
    25.What is the effect of more methane being produced?
    26.Combustion produces carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming, yet it has been suggested that the methane is burned. Give two advantages to burning the methane.
    27.What does the word “herd” mean?
    28.Give another method that has been suggested to stop the permafrost melting
    29.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using natural predators to control pests?
    30.What does the word “insulating” mean?
    31.What does the word “foraging” mean?
    32.How would introducing herds of plant eating animals help?
    33.What were mammoths?
    34.Which three types of mammals have been considered?
    35.What do you think could be the problems of introducing large numbers of a new species to an area?
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    Biology - Pump Head Syndrome article

    1.What does ‘oxygenated blood’ mean?
    2.What type of blood vessel usually carries oxygenated blood?
    3.What does ‘deoxygenated blood’ mean?
    4.What type of blood vessel usually carries deoxygenated blood?
    5.Why do our cells need oxygen?
    6.What happens to cells if they do not receive enough oxygen?
    7.What is the function of our lungs?
    8.What is added to the blood in a heart-lung machine?
    9.What waste product is removed from the blood in the lungs? Does the heart-lung machine remove this waste product?
    10.What is the function of our heart?
    11.What is heart bypass surgery?
    12.What is the job of the valves in the heart?
    13.As a number, how many of the patients in the 2001 study experienced reduced brain function?
    14.Why do you think the scientists needed to adjust the figures for age?
    15.What is meant by a control group?
    16.What is coronary heart disease and what factors increase the chance of coronary heart disease?
    17.How might heart disease affect the cells of the brain?
    18.In the second study, what percentages of those with heart disease;

    (i) Had surgery using the heart-lung machine
    (ii) Had surgery without using the heart-lung machine
    (iii) Did not have surgery

    19.What do the results of the second study suggest?
    20.What are the features of a good scientific study?
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    what are the answers to the biology and physics questions please but thank you for posting the questions! our teachers havent gave us anything for the core paper -.-
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    Thanks for posting the questions :-)
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    Any Answers?
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    Do we get questions about all 3 or is it just 1 random one?
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    I only did the organic food set, so they're the only ones I have answers for. mkhan9035 needs to get on the case!
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    I've got the questions for the Biology one already but thanks for the Chemistry and Physics
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    :woo: *Worships Majid* :woo:

    Just what I need! I can't believe how hard this is! :confused::eek: I'm terrified that I'm going to do badly, and that it will bring my overall grade down (I got A* and A in Units 1 & 2 respectively). Were starting to look at the Organic Food article next week, and we've looked at the other two. No revision on the exam week though because of work experience :mad:

    I;ve tried to answer some of the pump head syndrome quiestions, feel free to correct me or add more to the answers, I'm not really a science person :cool:

    1.What does ‘oxygenated blood’ mean?
    Oxygenated blood is blood that has been transported to the lungs and contains oxygen. :confused:
    2.What type of blood vessel usually carries oxygenated blood?
    Arteries contain oxygenated blood.
    3.What does ‘deoxygenated blood’ mean?
    Deoxygenated blood is blood that has not travelled to the lungs and so does not contain oxygen.
    4.What type of blood vessel usually carries deoxygenated blood?
    Veins carry deoxygenated blood.
    5.Why do our cells need oxygen?
    Our cells need oxygen in order to respire.
    6.What happens to cells if they do not receive enough oxygen?
    Any help here? :confused:
    7.What is the function of our lungs?
    I need a good definition, can't think of one at the moment.
    8.What is added to the blood in a heart-lung machine?
    A heart lung machine adds oxygen to the blood.
    9.What waste product is removed from the blood in the lungs? Does the heart-lung machine remove this waste product?
    No idea
    10.What is the function of our heart?
    Our heart pumps blood around the body, continually supplying cells with oxygen and glucose.
    11.What is heart bypass surgery?
    Any help here?
    12.What is the job of the valves in the heart?
    Valves in the heart prevent the blood from flowing in the wrong direction, and keep it going in one direction.
    13.As a number, how many of the patients in the 2001 study experienced reduced brain function?
    Don't have the booklet with me
    14.Why do you think the scientists needed to adjust the figures for age?
    Scientists needed to adjust the figures for age as age is a factor in heart disease, and so as the patients' ages increased two factors were being changed. If the figures had not been adjusted, it would have been hard to tell whether it was age or the heart-lung machine which was causing the pump head syndrome.
    15.What is meant by a control group?
    A control group is a group used as a standard for comparison.
    16.What is coronary heart disease and what factors increase the chance of coronary heart disease?
    Not sure
    17.How might heart disease affect the cells of the brain?
    If the heart cannot pump the blood as well as it used to, it will take longer for the brain to recieve oxygenated blood.
    18.In the second study, what percentages of those with heart disease;

    (i) Had surgery using the heart-lung machine
    (ii) Had surgery without using the heart-lung machine
    (iii) Did not have surgery
    Don't know these
    19.What do the results of the second study suggest?
    Don't have the booklet on hand
    20.What are the features of a good scientific study?
    A good study would have a large sample size and [I forgot the other feature ]
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    Thank you so much!
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    Thank you for the questions! they really helped me to gain more understanding of the articles =]
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    Thank you so much for these questions!
    I'm in year 11 doing additional science and am re-sitting this exam because my teacher last year was useless and none of us had any idea how to revise for this.
    I've been given a new copy of this years year 10 ideas in context (the one about organic food, methane gas in the arctic, and 'pump head' sydrome), and have read through it and understand it but I don't understand what there going to ask us? Like, will they ask us questions like the ones you have posted on here, or will they ask us to write an essay explaining the articles? It would be really useful if anyone has the link to a past paper just so I know what type of questions to expect/ how they set it out? Thank you!
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    (Original post by hol95)
    Thank you so much for these questions!
    I'm in year 11 doing additional science and am re-sitting this exam because my teacher last year was useless and none of us had any idea how to revise for this.
    I've been given a new copy of this years year 10 ideas in context (the one about organic food, methane gas in the arctic, and 'pump head' sydrome), and have read through it and understand it but I don't understand what there going to ask us? Like, will they ask us questions like the ones you have posted on here, or will they ask us to write an essay explaining the articles? It would be really useful if anyone has the link to a past paper just so I know what type of questions to expect/ how they set it out? Thank you!
    The questions may be like the ones posted here, or may use tose questions but word them ina way that will confuse you. You just have to recognize what they're asking you and use the relevant answer *


    *I think :blushing:

    EDIT: Just realized my IIC paper has been moved back to 10am so we can have our normal science lesson as revision. Just imagine if in the spare 20 mins someone happened to leak the answers and someone happened to have mobile internet :ninja:
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    For those smart people out there, is bypass surgery used to increase the blood flow of your heart by either diverting the flow of blood around a section of a blocked artery in your heart or widening the coronary arteries in the heart? OR is that extremely wrong ? =[
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    (Original post by Shaniicee)
    Any Answers?
    Here are the answers guys for methane from the arctic:

    Answers For Methane For The Arctic

    1. Increase in climate change and/or warming of the earth
    2. CO2 - Carbon Dioxide, CH4 - Methane, NO/NO2 - Nitrous Oxides, Water Vapour
    3.The result or outcome of something happening
    4. Nitrogen = 78%
    Oxygen = 21%
    Argon = 1%
    Other Gases (CO2, Water Vapour) = 0.04%

    5.the consequences of global warming could cause the earth to:
    -warm up
    -lead to ice caps melting
    -sea levels rising (anything along the lines of that)

    6.because people are driving cars more leading to more pollution and people are using more electricity

    7.carbon and hydrogen = CH4
    8.Methane absorbs infrared radiation, which contributes to the greenhouse effect.
    9. The amount of methane has risen up by 150%
    10.Most methane is produced by bacteria decomposing dead tissues from dead plant and animals.
    11. Where there is no oxygen available (or present), such as the mud at the bottom of stagnant ponds.
    12. the arctis is in the frozen north#
    13. USA
    14.Bubbles were coming out of lakes at fairbanks alaska.
    15.She found large quantities of methane being released from the ground underneath.
    16.Field work by other scientists in chersiky in northern russia found similar results.
    17.The top few centimetres of the ground in the arctic thaw.
    18.Permenantley frozen ground.
    19.it has dead pant and animal matter.
    20.It has been locked in cold storage for thousands of years.
    21.as the climate warms, the melting snow and glaciers produce more and more lakes.
    22.the water at the bottom of the permafrost melts.
    23.It allows microorganisms to break down the dead matter into methane.
    24.the more thawing there is, the more lakes will be formed.
    25.these lakes will warm up the permafrost underneath and release methane. This'll increase global warming further.
    26. advantages of burning methane:
    -Collect the methane and burn it
    -Introduce new herds into the region

    27.A large number of animals.
    28.The animals can help remove then insulating layer of snow when foraging for food.
    29. (don't know this one) ???
    30.A material that prevents heat and electricity etc. to escape
    31.Finding food for domestic animals
    32.It could prevent the permafrost from thawing as the plant eating animals can eat it away.
    33.Elephants with long curved tusks (now extinct)
    34.Moose, reindeer and horses
    35.(Dont know sorry) ?????

    Enjoy and good luck

    Thanks
    Majid

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