Describe how governments of richer countries have tried to cope with
changes in population structure. (8)
Sample mark scheme
Level 1 (Basic) 1–4 marks:
Knowledge of basic information
Few links; limited detail; uses a limited range of specialist terms
Limited evidence of sentence structure. Frequent spelling, punctuation
and grammatical errors. Build more hospitals. Build more old peoples’ homes. Raise taxes.
Level 2 (Clear) 5–6 marks:
Knowledge of accurate information
Answers have some linkages; occasional detail/exemplar; uses some
specialist terms where appropriate
Clear evidence of sentence structure. Some spelling, punctuation and
grammatical errors. Raise taxes so more old peoples’ homes can be built. Employ more social
workers to help elderly people remain in their own homes.
Level 3 (Detailed) 7–8 marks:
Detail, which may contain case study material
Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised and/or at
Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and exemplars
Well organised, demonstrating detailed linkages and the interrelationships between factors
Range of ideas in a logical form; uses a range of specialist terms where
Well structured response with effective use of sentences. Few spelling,
punctuation and grammatical errors.
Level 3 does not always equate to full marks, a perfect answer is not
usually expected, even for full marks. Increase the workforce by encouraging the immigration of young adults
from poorer countries. Giving financial rewards to have more children
such as in Italy and France. Raise the retirement age so people stay
longer in work, continuing to pay taxes and so receive pensions for a
shorter time. Make those in work pay higher taxes to pay the higher
pensions and greater social security. Abolish state pensions and make
people pay for their own pension.