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Aqa sociology unit 4 crime & deviance- january 27th 2012 !!!!!!!

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    (Original post by MiahMaster)
    Can someone show me the spefication that shows that there will be two 21 mark questions on crime and deviance =S As my teacher has not mentioned this and is not aware of it. =[
    woo she doesn't know about this changes??? o.O i can't find you any link on the web but i've got a book called succeed at A2 sociology which is written by aqa examiners and at the last page it says:

    "From January 2012 onwards, the 12 marke and 9 mark questions above will be replaced by a 21 mark Crime & Deviance question"
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    (Original post by swallow)
    If it's is sociology a science I'm screwed...I have no idea how to answer we've learnt about the sociology of suicide and your supposed to relate it to that I'm so confused can anyone tell me what to include if this does come up :confused: ????
    If you have it, the A2 AQA Sociology textbook is quite useful (blue and orange), pages 260-269.

    This entire topic is focused around the debate "should sociology be considered a science?". Obviously there are a number of different opinions on this.

    Positivist - yes! We CAN look at society scientifically, i.e. objectively (look up value freedom debate as this links to the topic), quantitatively. We can discover laws of society similar to the laws of science. Use Durkheim as an example - he attempted to study suicide in a scientific manner.

    Interpretivist - no! We need to achieve verstehen and validity, we need qualitative data not numbers etc.

    Look at Popper and his definition of science and falsification.

    Hope it helps, and good luck!
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    (Original post by amyamyamyxxx)
    No ive never heard of that structure agency debate i have no idea what that is.. for method things we just refer to positivists and interpretivits ..

    And in a globalisation essay you could include:
    - Definition of globalisation!
    - Manuel Castells- global criminal economy worth over £1 trillion per annum
    - In Columbia, 20% depend on cocaine production to bring income in
    - Ian Taylor- globalisation has changed patterns of crime, caused inequality
    - Hobbs & Dunningham, looks at economic changes
    - Link to postmodernism!- crime is now a global phenomenom , consumer culture promotes individualism
    - Beck & Sznaider- cosmopolitanisation- migration, immigration, telephone and internet, greenpeace and other campaigners
    -link to green crime- actions in one country effect others (pollution, climate change)
    -link to state crime
    etc
    hope thats given a few ideas!
    thats great thankyou!
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    Sucicide has not come up either. so i think its 2 of labelling, state crime, green crime and sucicide
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    (Original post by gfm)
    woo she doesn't know about this changes??? o.O i can't find you any link on the web but i've got a book called succeed at A2 sociology which is written by aqa examiners and at the last page it says:

    "From January 2012 onwards, the 12 marke and 9 mark questions above will be replaced by a 21 mark Crime & Deviance question"
    I asked her about it as well, she wasn't even bothered to check the specification and she goes 'no it isn't'. =S I've seen it now, it's difficult to find, they should have put it in red =/
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    (Original post by anyaaargh)
    You must include determinism, conflict and division which are the main criticisms of the functionalist theory but the Action theories and post-modernist approaches.

    The main sociologists involved in the fuctionalism theory are: Durkheim, who talked about the rapid change from traditional society (which was based on mechanical solidarity) to modern society which has developed a more complex division of labour, then Parsons who talks about the organic analogy which is the idea that society works as a system, like the human body. Everything within society relies upon something else to work efficiently. He believed that society works today and socialk order is acheived because we all live in a shared culture with shared norms and values which is what Parsons defines as "value consensus".
    Parsons also says that change is gradual and as society devlops the kinship loses these functions to factories, schools, churches etc, however this is criticised by conflict theorists as they say that functionalists assume that society is harmonious and stable.

    Merton internally criticises Parsons, saying that Parsons is wrong to assume that society contiunally runs smoothly, he criticises 3 assumptions; indispensability which Merton argues is an untested assumption, functional utility and universal functionalism, as Parsons says tat everything has a positive function, however he is ignoring problems such as poverty which are functional for some groups such as the rich, but not for the poor.

    Its quite straight forward, just keep in mind that functionalism are all for everybody getting along and they believe in value consensus. Marxism also are main critiques of functionalism, as they argue that shared values arent agreed by imposed on society in the interests of the dominant class (the bourgeouise)

    Strengths of the theory inc: that it is a compelte theory of society that has a resonance in New Right ideas. also, include some bits about functionalism and crime etc.
    would you attach a model essay by any chance?
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    I have this exam! SO nervous. Been making loads of mind maps hoping it'll go in. My teacher predicts consensus vs conflict theories or structualist vs interactionist (for the theory) and he also thinks courts might come up...

    How's everyone been revising it? There's SO much to get through. We only just got through it in class...

    Also, would it be necessary for me to apply idealism and realism into an essay?
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    I'm so nervous about this exam. I'll be honest I've left so much revision until the last minute! I know nothing for the 33 markers I really hope Globalisation, Labelling, State Crime or Gender comes up and also Suicide too! I don't know if it's just me but I find the realist approaches hard to memorise and also have NO CLUE about Postmodernism. GOD help me if that comes up, I may actually faint in the exam haha! Anyone unprepared like me?
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    (Original post by xAbbyElizabeth)
    I'm so nervous about this exam. I'll be honest I've left so much revision until the last minute! I know nothing for the 33 markers I really hope Globalisation, Labelling, State Crime or Gender comes up and also Suicide too! I don't know if it's just me but I find the realist approaches hard to memorise and also have NO CLUE about Postmodernism. GOD help me if that comes up, I may actually faint in the exam haha! Anyone unprepared like me?
    SAME =[ Does anyone have any advice in how to do some last minute cramming? =/
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    MiahMaster , i highlighted all the main key points in the text book , and read through them again and again.test yourself thereafter using a blank piece of paper and writting down al the key points in the book fo each topic.I have got a photographic memory , so that comes handy . Hope that helps. Just dont over do it , the skill is to be able to pick out the most important bits of information .for example : the crime and media topic : a key study by stanley cohen on the Mods and Rockers .After you know the outline of the theory you can use basic knowledge of how the media over exaggerate such crimes. by creating 'folk devils' . . and so on . just know the main omnitsand expand thereafter! hope that helps Best Of Luck
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    Hey! for those asking on how to structure the functionalism theory essay i would do it like this:

    Start with a intro that says that functionalism is a structural theory (explain wht it means), its based on a value consensus which helps mantain control. Also in the intro say that their view is opposed by conflict theorists whom see society based on some sort of conflict, either on gender or class (This will show the examiner that although u knw the question is asking u about functionalism u knw tht u need to evaluate it)

    The the main body of ur essay should include concepts by Durkeim, Parsons and criticisms by Merton and conflict theorists. Include things such as the organic analogy to explain how society works and the needs society has according to Parsons (AGIL). Also explain how society achieves value consensus, i.e. by integration through socialisation and social control agencies. Another point u could explain is how society experiences a gradual change from the traditional society to the modern society and explain the differences between these two, e.g. tradition societies roles are ascribed by birth while in modern societies status is achieved.

    In order to conclude say something on the line of functionalism is a useful perspective to understand how society works as it gives a whole picture of society, however there are teleological criticism to it which means that it explains the function of institutions in terms of their effect while logically there has to be a cause before its effect. Also society doesn’t have a single paradigm as if everyone believed the same and lived in harmony why would there be different perspectives on society with their own views?

    The development of the points mentioned above should help to gain high band marks in a functionalism essay! best of luck ... just a day left to revise :/
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    (Original post by MiahMaster)
    Can someone show me the spefication that shows that there will be two 21 mark questions on crime and deviance =S As my teacher has not mentioned this and is not aware of it. =[
    http://store.aqa.org.uk/qual/gce/pdf...-SQP-JAN12.PDF
    this link should take you to the new specimin paper with the two 21 mark crime and deviance quesrtions!
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    What is more likely to come up as a33 mark question someone please help so ****ting this exam
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    for the two 21 markers what is most likely to come up? i think it might be Gloablisation... but for that can you link it with green crime? & i hope gender (mainly the chivalry thesis) or ethinicity comes up.. but i highly doubt ethnicity will come up. does anyone know what you put down for labelling for a 21 marker please. thanks & good luck to all tomoz!!
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    (Original post by amyamyamyxxx)
    No ive never heard of that structure agency debate i have no idea what that is.. for method things we just refer to positivists and interpretivits ..

    And in a globalisation essay you could include:
    - Definition of globalisation!
    - Manuel Castells- global criminal economy worth over £1 trillion per annum
    - In Columbia, 20% depend on cocaine production to bring income in
    - Ian Taylor- globalisation has changed patterns of crime, caused inequality
    - Hobbs & Dunningham, looks at economic changes
    - Link to postmodernism!- crime is now a global phenomenom , consumer culture promotes individualism
    - Beck & Sznaider- cosmopolitanisation- migration, immigration, telephone and internet, greenpeace and other campaigners
    -link to green crime- actions in one country effect others (pollution, climate change)
    -link to state crime
    etc
    hope thats given a few ideas!
    hey, for globalisation essay do you have to include state crime?
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    Using Material From Item A & Elsewhere, Assess The View That Crime And Deviance Are The Product Of Labelling Processes. (21Marks).
    this is a essay i have done which i recieved 20/21 on . break the subheadings up and focus on keeping it clear and consise.If you look through my essay , i would have been able to still gt top marks even by condesing my knowledge. good luck
    The term labelling is defined as a meaning attached to an person whether being positive/negative , however in most relative case , negative.Labelling theorist ask how and why some people and actions come to be labelled as criminal or deviant & what effecrs this has on those who are labelled.Instead of accepting oficial statistics as a valid pitchutr of crime, they regard them as social facts wich reflects the orginis of the labelling theory in social constuctionism perspectives.This shows how individuals consturct withsocial world through teir face -to-face interactions.BECKER quotes : 'social groups create deviance by ceating the rules whose infraction consititues devaince'.In anaylse of this quote , for Becker, a deviant is simply someone whom the label has been sucessfully applied to.There are many useful theoreis alongside examples which help us to link how the labelling processes can result in crime and deviance.These are as followed:
    Firstly , not everybody gets labelled.Whether a person is arresred , charged and convicted depends on factors such as : their interactions with agencies of social control such as the police and courts.This concept leads labelling theorist to look at how the laws are applied and enforced as their studies show the agenices of csocila control are oe likely to label certain groups of people as deviant or criminal which can thereafter result in an deviant act being produced.
    CICOUREL found that officers ' typifications led them to concerntrate on certain 'types'.For example : manner,dress and gender which thereafter resulted in the law enforcement showing a class bias, in that working - class people fittede these police typifications most closely.Due to these easons , this led the polices to petrol working - class people directly to arrest as this fitted their stereotypes.As the police has labelled an teenager as 'working class' , justice is fixed however if it were an middle class teenager who had commited an deviant act justice would be negoitable, this could be partly because the middle class teenagers abckgeround does not fit the polices 'typical delinquent'.Police typifications placed on individuals therefore creates an 'label' which can therefore cause these indivuals to rebel and be seen as 'trouble' in comparison to working-class individuals whom are given an more lenient approach.However the labelling theory has been accused of being too determinstic , implying that once someone is labelled, a deviant career is inevitable.
    As item A suggests , accroding to an study of anti - social behaviour orders (ASBOS) by the youth justice board, some parents and magistrates throught they were a 'diploma in deviance' and they bileived that youths saw them as a 'badge of honour'.Many youths however did not regard the threat of custody as a deterrent to breaching their order.The study also fond that the orders were disproportionately used against ethnic minorities : balcks and aisans were about two and a half times more likely than whites to be given an ASBO.This reflects that labels are attached accordingly to ethnic minorites and therefore can result in an self - fullfilling prophecy as children are treated accordingly as being 'deviant' which links back to the concept of ROSENTHAL AND JACKOBSON.However consequently , the labelling theory is criticised for assuming that offenders are passive victimes,it ignores the fact that individuals may actively choose deviance , therefore it is not possible for a self - fullfilling prohpecy to be produced.This study could suggest that labelling is the solid basis for the reasons that minors and othr individuals feel tocommit crime as they are disregarded and marginalsied from society.In addtion , item A also quotes that 'the study found that it was not uncommon for young people to openly flout the prohibitions placed on them by the order as figures show that by 2008 2/3 had breached their orders.The official statistcs report protrays a deviance amplification spiral as the attempt to control deviance by ASBO's leads to higher levels of deviance being produced.
    On the other hand, JOHN BRAITHWAITE identifies a more positive tole for the labelling processes.Firstly , reintegrative labelling which labels the act but not th actor for the crime commited.This policy therefore avoids stigmatising the offender as eveil while at the same time making them aware of the negative impact of heir actions in wich encourages the individual to change and be accepted back into society.This concept suggest that crime and deviance is not the result of labelling processes but just provided the offender back to the mainstream of society which is seen as a positive effect.
    In exception to labelling , there are many other factors which could result in labelling such as poverty as some indivudals may feel relatively deprived therefore feel the need to rebel against the 'capitalist greed' , consequently , lone - parent families , power and subcultures which COHEN talks about haing an 'deprivation gap' are all factors which could be the result of crime and deviance in comparison to labelling proccessess as labelling implies that without it , deviance is not possible to exist.The concept of postmodernit and free is also a key concept to be applied to why crime occurs.For example : the recent riots in august 2011 in London was of free choice at some point.
    Overall , crime and deviance are said to be due to the reson of labelling processes as indivuals who are labelled tend to be of working - class culture as the courts and police officers place these 'typifications' towards them.However , labelling processes have been criticised on a number of accounts for the emphasis on the negative effects of labelling which gives the ofender a kind of victim status.
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    A great tip , that you may not havee been taught ! If you want to score them hih marks use SYNOPTIC LINKS .for example : Men are able to commit more crimes as they have partiachal control over womens unpaid domestic labour.This could have a synoptic link to how men pay the instrumental role in the family.

    You can link many concepts back to the family and eduation from units 1 & 2 !! hope that helpsss good luck guysss xxx
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    What questions came up in the June 2011 paper?
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    (Original post by blue_)
    What questions came up in the June 2011 paper?
    from what i can remember, it was marxist theory on crime, and sociology as value free. i cant remeber the other questions though sorry
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    (Original post by beccaa:))
    from what i can remember, it was marxist theory on crime, and sociology as value free. i cant remeber the other questions though sorry
    OK thanks! Any suggestions on what may come up?!

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