(Original post by zozzie94)
1. A d block element is an element which has its electrons with the highest energy in its d orbitals (ie outer electrons in the d orbitals).
2. copper: I'm gonna put spaces between them otherwise it looks confusing but obvs in an exam i wouldnt haha: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 2p6 4s1 3d10
chromium: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5
3. Colour change with cu2+ is pale blue solution to blue precipitate, with co2+ it's pink solution to blue precipitate which turns beige in the air (cos its oxidised), with fe2+ green solution to green precipitate which turns rusty brown in oxygen because the fe2+ ions are oxidised to fe3+, with fe3+ its pale yellow solution to rusty brown precipitate.
4. There are 2 ways they act as catalysts: 1. they provide a metal surface for the reaction to occur on so the reactants are adsorbed onto the surface and held in place to react there and then the products are desorbed off and the surface is unchanged. 2. They bind to the reactants forming intermediates as part of a chemical pathway with a lower activation energy.
5. Ok I'm not 100% sure about this but I think it's when there's 4 multidentate ligands (ie you would think it would be tetrahedral) but there are cis and trans isomers.
6. h2Nch2ch2nh2 ie ethane-1,2-diamine
7. Cis platin is used as an anti-cancer drug. It works by binding to the cancer cells and preventing them from reproducing, therefore killing them. Not really sure how to show it's structure without drawing it...but it has 2 chlorine ligands and 2 nh3 ligands and a central Pt ion...and its square planar and obviously the cis isomer so the cl ligands are next to each other on the bottom.
8. A ligand that donates more than one lone pair of electrons to the central transition metal ion forming more than one coordinate bond.
9. The colour change with the copper ligand and ammonia is it starts of as a pale blue solution and when you add a bit of ammonia a pale blue precipitate is formedthen when you add excess ammonia this dissolves to form a deep blue solution. With copper ligand and cl- ions, it goes pale blue solution then green solution then yellow solution. With cobalt its pink solution to blue solution.
10. Ligand substitution is a reaction in which one ligand is substituted for another ligand.
11. Kstab is the equilibrium constant existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex that forms when ligand substitution takes place. Large kstab means equilibirum shifts to the right ie the products side and therefore that complex ion is more likely to form.
12. Oh god...I swear we don't need to know the exact colours, do we?! I just know that in the mno4 and fe, end point is colourless to pink and in the eequation, the mol ratio of fe to mno4 is 5 to 1...and then in the iodine one i think at first it's dark brown (white precipitate in a brown solution) and then eventually turns straw coloured which is when you add the starch indicator so then it turns blue black because of the iodine present and then at end point its colourless and a white precipitate is formed and the reactions are
2cu2+ + 4 I- ---> 2cuI +I2 and 2S2O3 2- + I2 --> 2I- + s4o6 2-
Thanks for the questions!