Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-18092653(video included)
Two patients in the United States who are paralysed from the neck down have been able to control a robotic arm using their thoughts.
It allowed one to drink unaided for the first time in nearly 15 years.
The technique, described in the journal Nature, links a sensor implanted in the brain to a computer, which translates electrical signals into commands.
In years to come, scientists want to reconnect the brain to paralysed limbs to enable them to function again.
The project was a partnership by Brown University and the Department of Veteran Affairs, Rhode Island, and the Department of Neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston.
In 2006 in a previous Nature paper, the team showed that the same neural interface system could be used by a paralysed patient to control a cursor on a computer screen.
I couldn't believe my eyes when I was able to drink coffee without help. I was ecstatic. I had feelings of hope and a great sense of independence”
The key is a tiny sensor implanted on to the surface of the motor cortex.
Thinking about moving an arm or hand activates neurons in this part of the brain and the electrical activity is sent via a cable to a computer, which translates them into commands.
Both patients in this latest research project were paralysed many years ago by strokes and have no viable movement below the neck.
Video footage shows 58-year-old Cathy Hutchinson using the neural interface to control a robotic arm and bring a flask of coffee to her mouth. It was the first time in nearly 15 years that she had taken a drink unaided.
She communicates by picking out letters on a board using eye movement and wrote: "I couldn't believe my eyes when I was able to drink coffee without help. I was ecstatic. I had feelings of hope and a great sense of independence."
That was echoed by Prof John Donoghue, a neurologist at Brown University.
He said: "There was a moment of true joy, true happiness. It was beyond the fact that it was an accomplishment. I think it was an important advance in the field of brain-computer interfaces that we had helped someone do something they had wished to do for many years."
This research shows that the part of the brain that deals with movement continues to function more than a decade after paralysis.
Furthermore, the chip continues to function long-term - Cathy Hutchinson had the sensor fitted six years earlier.
The technology is years away from practical use and the trial participants used the system under controlled conditions in their homes with a technician on hand.
Nonetheless, another of the report authors, Prof Leigh Hochberg, said the team had four goals:
* To develop effective communications systems for people with locked-in syndrome, giving them control over a cursor on a computer screen
* To create improved neural control of robotic-assistive devices for patients with paralysis
* To use the system to allow amputees to control a prosthetic limb by the neural interface
* To enable paralysed patients to reconnect their brain to their limbs using this system so that they could use their own hand to pick up a coffee cup.
Prof Hochberg freely admitted that the third and fourth goals were distant ambitions but they were the "real dream" for people with such disabilities. The researchers say it is impossible to put a timescale on when this might be achieved.
Story Landis, director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, which part-funded the work, said: "This technology was made possible by decades of investment and research into how the brain controls movement.
"It's been thrilling to see the technology evolve from studies of basic neurophysiology and move into clinical trials, where it is showing significant promise for people with brain injuries and disorders."
I hope that it's tested more and further verified successfully so that other paraplegics can regain some sense of physical independence.
Paralysed patients use thoughts to control robotic arm
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We learnt a bit about this on our course. There's an incredible video on YouTube somewhere (I can't seem to find it at the moment, but if I do I'll post the link) of a monkey with no disabilities at all learning that, though the power of thought, it can use the robotic arm it's attached to to pick up the pieces of fruit being handed to it by a researcher. The dexterity involved is quite something, and I remember at one point, the researcher drops the piece of fruit just before the monkey is about to grab it, and the monkey is able to catch it from falling instantaneously.
It's great that they've managed to implement something like this and for the effects to be long-term, as well; I remember reading one study about a guy who had such a system fitted so that he could move the cursor on his computer, but after a certain number of years the electrodes deteriorated, for some reason.
Research in this area is fascinating, and of course the practical uses are almost limitless, once we get the technology up to scratch.
yes yes yes
this is exactly the kind of **** I want to do
Not really novel, this has been around for quite some time but an awesome achievement nonetheless.
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Flawless scientific victory.
Does this mean I'll be able to trade in my crappy meat bag in the near future?
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