(Original post by R.P.Everything.)
Here's my unofficial mark scheme. Correct me if I am wrong, tell me if there are other answers, and I'm still missing a 1 mark question somewhere in here.
1) Match the stages to the definitions?
-Animal testing for toxicity/Trial testing in humans is the first clinical stage/Test on patients to find optimum dose (3).
2) Why was the headline unjustified?
-Tested on mice not humans/6 doses of caffeine used, not one/small sample size of only 50 (3).
3a) Australopithecus afarensis has been around for?
-3.3 million years (1)
3b) Ancestor of Paranthropus bosei?
-Paranthropus aethiopithicus (1)
3c) Why might scientists disagree that chinese people descended from homo erectus?
-Diagram shows that homo erectus had no descendant species/Modern humans all descend from Homo heidelbergensis/Homo erectus fossils found elsewhere, not just in China. (2)
3d) Why did Darwin have trouble convincing scientists about his theory of evolution?
- No evidence yet for genetics or DNA/Religious objections to the fact we were not created by God (2).
4a) What is malnourishment?
- Imbalance of nutrition/unbalanced diet/lacking certain minerals (1).
4b) Name some effects of malnutrition?
-Weakened immune system/irregular periods/named deficiency disease - eg. scurvy (2).
4c) Country with the highest proportion of people with insufficient food.
4d) Effects of not having enough food?
- Muscle wastage/irregular periods/weakened immune system/flaky skin and thin hair (2).
5) Why does the lionfish population boom?
-Alien species/no natural predators evolved alongside/little competition/no limitation of numbers/feed off plentiful native fish/high survival rate of young (3).
6a) Why should the woman have babies in her mid 20s and not late 30s?
- Chance of getting pregnant falls
from 78% to 46%/Chance of infertility rises
from 5% to 20% (2).
6b) Name two hormones used in fertility treatment.
- FSH and LH (2).
6c) Sperm and eggs are mixed in IVF. Describe remaining stages.
- Embryo allowed to divide/two or three healthy embryos chosen/transferred back into the mother's womb. (2)
7a) Why do apples taste different from their parents?
- Recombination of genes/different characteristics expressed causing different taste/natural mutations (2).
7b) How could the same taste be produced?
- Tissue cloning/take a cutting/planting a shoot from the same plant (1).
7c) Explain why this has the same taste.
- Genetically identical to parent/Same characteristics expressed so same taste (2).
8a) Calculate the percentage increase in people catching the antibiotic resistant bacteria.
- 18.06%/18.1% (2).
8b) Explain in terms of natural selection why the bacteria spread more.
- Natural mutation/Causes resistance in bacteria/to antibiotics/less affected by antibiotics, so harder to treat/spreads more easily (3).
9a) Average increase in palm oil tree growth
- 860 per year. (2)
9b) Explain why the components of the atmosphere change as forests are cleared to plant palm oil trees.
- Original forests locked up carbon/via photosynthesis./Palm oil also takes in carbon dioxide but is released again when burnt in motor vehicles/net effect is that no extra CO2 taken in with palm trees/but forests have been cut down, so net effect is increased carbon dioxide in the air. Possible mention of sulphur dioxide and other pollutants from exhausts(5)