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    • Thread Starter

    Outline the evidence for social class inequality in the contemporary UK
    is this question asking for working class disadvantages

    also does anyone have social class inequality notes for G674 please desperately need them

    You can say that the working class are disadvantaged then highlight how they are in your answers, for example:

    In terms of health:
    Bottero claimed that there is a link between class and health, the rates of morbidity and mortality are not randomly distributed across the UK. Babies born to professional fathers have levels of infant mortality half of that of babies born to unskilled manual fathers. There are also specific occupational hazards linked to particular manual jobs which increase the risk of accidental injury, exposure to toxic material, pollutions etc.
    Marmot et al argued that there is a health gradient where at every level of the social hierarchy, there are health differences. Those low in the hierarchy had less social control over their working conditions, greater stress and greater feelings of low self-esteem. It may be that working class occupations are the lowest in the hierarchy and these may be causing their disproportionate levels of morbidity and mortality
    Wilkinson cites that the health gradient is caused by income inequality, it affects health because it undermines social cohesion. Inequality disrupts social cohesion because it undermines self-esteem, trust and co-operation and increases feelings of insecurity, envy, hostility and inferiority which lead to stress
    In terms of education:
    Kynaston claims that most studies of meritocracy recognise that education is the prime engine of social mobility. However meritocracy in the UK is undermined by the existence of private schools. Only about 7% of all children are educated at private schools, but these children take up 45% of the Oxbridge places
    Furlong and Cartmel found that children from disadvantaged backgrounds were morel likely to be found in 'new universities' and they were less likely to secure graduate jobs on leaving
    Hirsh claims that many working class children fall behind because their homes don't, and often can't, provide the same support for formal learning as more affluent homes because they lack material resources.
    In terms of housing:
    The ONS found that patterns of home ownership are linked to social class, 92% of social class 1 either owned homes outright or with a mortgage, compared to 14% of the long-term unemployed and those who have never worked, in social class 8.
    Le Grand, The Joseph Rowntree Foundation and the Child Poverty Action Group highlighted the effects of poor housing on people's life chances. Damp, overcrowded and inadequately heated accommodations lead to inequalities such as physical and mental health problems, education underachievement, reduced life expectancy and social exclusion.
    • Thread Starter

    thanks! also can you answer these questions with the same content Outline and assess Marxist explanations of social classexplanations

    Outline and assess the Marxist explanations of social classinequalities im confused if they're separate

    (Original post by peanutcracker20)
    thanks! also can you answer these questions with the same content Outline and assess Marxist explanations of social classexplanations

    Outline and assess the Marxist explanations of social classinequalities im confused if they're separate
    You're welcome
    These two questions are separate, the one that I've answered above is basically just evidence of their inequalities (20 marks) whereas the sociological views (40 marks) are actual views such as Functionalist, Marxist, Neo-Marxism and Weberianism.
    Marxist views (in basic words)
    Marxists believe that there are two reasons for class conflict,
    1) the means of production (the resources needed to produce goods, such as capital, land, factories, machinery and raw materials)
    2) the social relation of production (the ways in which people are organised to make things (the way in which roles and responsibilities are allocated among those involved in production
    )Marx described modern Western societies as capitalist societies and suggested such societies consist of two main classes:
    1) the bourgeoisie - the capitalist/ruling class who own the means of production; they are owners in businesses and control decisions about employment, new products and so on
    2) the proletariat - the working/subordinate class, who sell their ability to work to the bourgeoisie; most people make a living by working for a profit-making business, but they have no say in business decisions or how they are put to work and they rely on the success of the company they work for.Marx argued that the social relations of production between the bourgeoisie and proletariat are unequal, exploitative and create class conflict. Wages are kept as low as possible and the bourgeoisie pocket the difference between what they pay their workers and the value of the goods produced by the workers (surplus value). Workers become alienated by this process and are united by a shared exploitative class experience. This common class experience means that the working class is class-in-itself.
    Workers rarely see themselves are exploited because they have been 'duped' by ideological apparatuses such as education and the media, into believing that capitalism is fair and natural. The working class are consequently suffering from false class consciousness.After explaining Marx's theory, it needs to be evaluated and an alternative view needs to be mentioned (such as Functionalism) that has different views.
    I hope this helps
    • Thread Starter

    does social class inequalities and social explanations have the content?
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