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History - Edexcel - Nazi's 1933-1945

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    There doesn't seem to be a thread for this topic, and i found it really helpful with english to bounce ideas around on a thread.
    I know english is a bit different, but it might be helpful, and also my teaher wasnt that great, so any info at all would be really helpful.

    I'll try and type up some notes later if people want me to?
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    Im guessing this is for unit 6. Yeh - revision notes should be helpful to people. Ive got mine sorted into
    a) consolidation of power
    b) propaganda
    c) economy
    d) weak dictator?
    e) anti semitism
    f) society
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    the thing i'm most worried about is the questions about specific people-
    himmler, goering, goebbels [don't even think i can spell them]

    is it likely one of them will come up?
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    I find it hard to work out how much fact I need to know. If anyone wants me to post up a revision guide by an Edexcel examiner (that is only 14 pages so doesn't seem to have that much) I will do so.
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    ooo please do!
    ive heard Goebbels is likely to come up in the A question, and the holocaust in B
    i hate sources, i always interprit them wrong
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    1. The Legacy of the Weimar government in explaining initial support for Nazi regime: acceptance of, and support for, Nazi rule among different social, economic and religious groups

     Germany became a Parliamentary Republic in November 1918 following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II.

     The Republic survived a period of crisis 1919-23, enjoyed a fragile recovery 1924-29, but had collapsed by the end of 1932.

    The Legacy of the Republic helps to explain the initial support for the Nazis.

     The Republic was seen by many Germans as a product of Germany’s defeat in World War One.

     Germany’s defeat in war was never accepted by many Germans who believed that their country had been ‘stabbed in the back’ by unpatriotic Liberals, Pacifists and Jews. The new Republic was therefore seen as part of a conspiracy.

     The Republic was seen as an alien institution imposed by Germany’s enemies. German diplomats were barred from the peace negotiations at Versailles in 1919.

     Many Germans felt that they had no obligation to accept democracy as part of a dictated peace (or ‘Diktat’).

     The Republic never achieved lasting political stability. Governments were weak, short-lived coalitions.

     There were 20 Governments from 1919 to 1932. This was mainly due to the system of proportional representation which made it difficult for any one party from winning a clear majority in the Reichstag (parliament).

     Article 24 allowed the President to dismiss the government whilst Article 48 gave emergency powers to the President. Article 48 also undermined Governments by allowing the President to rule by Decree without reference to the Reichstag.

     Weimar Governments were blamed for the economic crises which plagued Germany 1919-1932. Germany suffered hyperinflation in 1923, and high levels of unemployment throughout the 1920s.

     An agricultural depression caused widespread poverty in the countryside in 1929 and there was massive unemployment following the Wall Street Crash in 1929. By 1932 unemployment had risen to six million.




    How did the Nazis exploit the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic in 1932-33?

     The Nazis deliberately made different promises to different sections of German society. All promises were vague and contained no accurate details. They made no attempt to reconcile conflicting claims.

     They promised to rescue bankrupted peasant farmers and to reverse the long-term drift from the land to the cities.

     They promised to generate economic recovery and to create full employment.

     They appeared to be the only small party strong enough to prevent a communist revolution and end the anarchy on the streets, and to remove the threat from the communists.

     They appealed to German nationalism by challenging the Treaty of Versailles.

     They offered strong leadership and stable government.

     The Nazis made particular efforts to appeal to the youth of Germany by attempting represent themselves as a ‘new party’ and the ‘future’.

     Popular, simplistic policies were powerfully advertised by a well-organised propaganda machine led by Josef Goebbels. The Nazis organised a relentless programme of meetings, rallies and demonstrations 1929-1932.

     The Nazis used their private army the Sturm Abteilungen (SA or Storm-troopers) to intimidate their political opponents, especially the communists.

     Hitler was a charismatic figure, able to impress crowds by his theatrical and demagogic style of leadership.

    Nazi Support in 1933

     The Nazis were able to win support from all social groups.

     They won their greatest support from the lower middle classes, skilled workers and peasant farmers.

     The Nazis won less support from the social elites, the unskilled workers, and the unemployed.

     The Nazis grew more popular among Protestants, less so from Catholics.

     The Nazis won support in particular from Germans over 60 and from young people aged 18-24.


    Why did the Nazis appeal to the Lower Middle Class (‘Mittelstand’)?

     Many shopkeepers, clerks, professionals, craftsmen had been ruined by the hyperinflation of 1923.

     They thought that the Weimar Republic had been too left wing and had favoured Trade Unions.

     They resented ‘Big Business’ and the growth of large supermarkets, often owned by Jews.

     They feared economic ruin following the Great Depression.

     They feared a Communist Revolution.

     Many hated the artistic modernism and moral permissiveness of the 1920s.

    Why did the Nazis appeal to peasant farmers?

     Farmers believed that Weimar Governments had favoured urban workers.

     Many farmers had left the land as farm incomes declines during the 1920s.

     Many farmers, particularly in Northern Germany had been ruined by the agricultural depression after 1928.

     Farmers feared that their lands would be collectivised following a Communist Revolution.

     The Nazis exploited farmers' conservative instincts by preaching their ideology of ‘blood and soil’.

    Why did the Nazis appeal to skilled workers?

     Skilled workers were usually not represented by Trade Unions or by the Social Democrats.

     The income of skilled workers increased less than that of unskilled in the 1920s.

     The development of ‘new industries’, which used assembly line techniques, had reduced the demand for skilled workers.

     Skilled workers were threatened by mass unemployment after 1929.

     Skilled workers feared a Communist Revolution more than the unskilled because they feared that socialist policies would lead to a levelling down of incomes.

    Why did the Nazis appeal more strongly to Protestants?

     Protestants believed that the Catholic Centre Party (Zentrum) had been too powerful during the Weimar Republic.

     The Centre Party had been part of the coalition governments during the Weimar period.

     Protestants feared an attack on the church if the communists came to power.

     Some Protestants were anti-Semitic.

     Protestants identified more strongly with German nationalism.

    How did the Nazis establish their dictatorship in 1933?

     Hitler was invited by President von Hindenburg to become Chancellor on 30th January 1933.

     The cabinet included three Nazis: Hitler himself with Frick as Interior Minister, Goering as Minister without Specific Responsibility. The others, like Vice-Chancellor von Papen, were conservatives.

     Goering, as Minister-President of Prussia, drafted Nazi stormtroopers into the police force.

     Hitler ordered new elections to be held in March and began a campaign of intimidation and propaganda.

     Newspapers and radios were censored by the propaganda ministry led by Goebbels.

     Hitler blamed the Reichstag fire on 27th February on the Communists and introduced a law ‘for the Protection of People and State’ which established a State of Emergency on 28th February. This gave unlimited powers of arrest of Nazi opponents, especially Communists and Socialists.

     Concentration camps such as Dachau, Munich and Sachsenhausen near Berlin were opened to imprison and torture Nazi political opponents and ‘anti social’ groups such as tramps, drunks and homosexuals.

     The Nazis won 43.9% in the Elections on 5th March. To secure a majority they formed an alliance with the German Nationalist Party (DNVP).

     On 21st March, the Nazis staged an elaborate Commemoration Service at the garrison church at Potsdam to demonstrate their democratic respectability and conservative principles.

     With the support of the Centre Party, Hitler secured the passage of the Enabling Act (23rd March) through the Reichstag. This gave the Nazis dictatorial powers.


    Nazi Propaganda and the use of terror: the nature and extent of resistance to Nazi rule

    Josef Goebbels became Minister of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda in January 1933. Propaganda was used to indoctrinate Nazi ideology and to enforce conformity to the regime.

    How did the Nazis use Propaganda?

     Journalists were purged, newspapers were controlled by the Nazi agency DNB, which held daily press briefings.

     Radio broadcasts offered direct access to the home. Cheap radios were produced so that all families could hear the Nazi message.

     Posters in trams and on streets.

     Films directed by Leni Riefenstahl such as ‘Triumph of the Will’ (1935) and ‘Olympia’ (1938).

     Stage-managed events such as the Day at Potsdam (March 1933), the Book-burning (May 1933), the Berlin Olympics (1936) were used to create and bolster the image of the Nazis.

     A regular programme of rallies, demonstrations, processions developed to catch the attention of the German people and maintain support.

     Ritual: Celebration of Nazi Days, the Nazi Salute, Horst Wessel Song.

     State paternalism managed through ‘Strength Through Joy’, ‘Beauty of Labour’, ‘Winterhelp’.

     Control of teachers, syllabus and youth groups.

     Manipulation of Art, Music and Architecture.

    How successful was Nazi Propaganda?

     Propaganda was powerful because it enjoyed a state monopoly, was skilfully deployed and because it often reinforced popular prejudices.

     Propaganda was effective in securing the consolidation of the dictatorship, demonstrating state paternalism and reinforcing Nazi ideas for the family and young people.

     Propaganda also encouraged a growing sense of Nationalism and the marginalisation of the Jews.

     For many Germans, propaganda dulled their senses and lulled them into a sense of security or helplessness.

     There were, however, limits to the success of propaganda. The Germans were a highly educated and cultured nation and propaganda failed when it was crude or oppressive.

     Many Germans remained cynical or unconvinced. There was little enthusiasm for the ‘Anschluss’ with Austria in 1938 or for the attack on Jews during Crystal Night in 1938 or for a European War in 1939.

    How did the Nazis use Terror?

     Nazi Stormtroopers had beaten and killed their opponents in the election campaigns 1930-1932.

     Stormtroopers were drafted into the Prussian Police Force in February 1933 and continued to bully opponents.

     Concentration camps such as Dachau near Munich and Sachsenhausen near Berlin were opened to imprison and torture Nazi political opponents and ‘anti socials’.

     The Secret State Police (Gestapo) was formed in April 1933 to eliminate all dissent.

     The SS (Schutzstaffel) led by Heinrich Himmler became the main instrument of Nazi Terror.

     Rohm and the leadership of the Stormtroopers were purged following the Night of the Long Knives (30th June 1934) by the SS.

    The Night of the Long Knives

    Hitler purged Rohm and other leaders of the Stormtroopers as well as leading Conservative opponents such as General von Schleicher, Jung and von Bose.

    Why did Hitler purge his Opponents?

     Hitler feared that his dictatorship was challenged by Rohm who claimed to lead three million Stormtroopers.

     Rohm’s ideas of a ‘Second Revolution’ to destroy the social elites and to replace the army by a ‘Peoples Army’ alienated Hitler’s conservative political and business allies who were vital at this stage of his dictatorship.

     The Generals demanded the destruction of the Stormtroopers as a precondition of their co-operation with rearmament. General von Brauschitsch gave Hitler a blunt ultimatum to this effect in May 1934.

     President von Hindenburg and Vice-Chancellor von Papen condemned the brutality and lawlessness of the Stormtroopers and threatened to declare Martial Law.

     Hitler also feared a challenge from the Conservatives on the death of Hindenburg. He was particularly alarmed by von Papen’s speech at Marburg in June 1934 which denounced the lawlessness on the streets.

    How did Hitler purge his Opponents?

     Goering and Himmler drew up death lists of all suspected opponents under the codename ‘Operation Hummingbird’.

     Hitler ordered Rohm to disband the Stormtroopers for the summer.

     Whilst on retreat at Bad Weissee in Bavaria the SS mounted a raid to arrest SA leaders.

     Goering produced fabricated evidence accusing SA leaders of political subversion and sexual debauchery.

     Conservative opponents, such as von Scheicher, were shot by SS officers in Berlin.

     The Reichstag accepted and supported Hitler’s actions.

    Why was the Purge so important?

     It resolved Hitler’s political crisis and secured his dictatorship.

     It broke any remaining moral or legal restraints in the dictatorship.

     It established the power of the SS.

     It paralysed opposition from the conservatives.

     It secured Hitler’s alliance with the army. This was important following the death of President Hindenburg on 2nd August 1934.

     On the death of Hindenburg, Hitler abolished the position of President and became Head of State or Fuhrer of Germany.

     The army agreed to swear an oath of allegiance to Hitler as Head of State.

     In a plebiscite on 19th August 90% of Germans voted in favour of Hitler’s position as Head of State.

     The SS absorbed all police functions in 1936. The SS organised the purge of dissident Generals, Blomberg and Fritsch in February 1938.


    Opposition to the Nazi dictatorship 1933 – 1939

    There was no organised nation-wide opposition to the dictatorship. Those Germans who opposed Hitler did so in small isolated and uncoordinated groups.

    Why did some Germans attempt to resist the Nazis?

     Communists and socialists were ideologically opposed to the Nazis and became the regime’s first victims following the Emergency Decree of February 1933.

     Some conservatives realised that von Papen’s attempt to control Hitler and then to eject him had failed. Vice-chancellor von Papen headed a small group of conservative dissidents which gathered information cataloguing the regime’s illegality.

     In June 1933 von Papen denounced the brutality of the regime at Marburg.

     Church leaders opposed the Regime’s interference with education and youth organizations. Some Protestants formed the ‘confessional church’ led by Martin Niemoller.

     Many Germans were shocked by the brutality of the Nazis to the Jews during the Crystal Night attacks 9/10 November 1938.

     Some aristocratic Generals feared the threat posed to the army by one S.S. and opposed Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy after 1937 which threatened war before Germany was fully prepared.

     Von Blomberg and von Fritsch opposed Hitler’s policy in 1937 and Generals Beck and Halder plotted to oust Hitler in September 1938 during the Czech crisis.

    Why was resistance to the Nazi dictatorship ineffective 1933 – 1939?

     The speed and ruthlessness of Hitler’s seizure and consolidation of dictatorship surprised and confused his opponents. Legal opposition became almost impossible following the Emergency Decree of 28 February 1933.

     Key leaders of the political opposition such as Ernst Thalmann and Otto Wels were arrested and sent to concentration camps in March 1933.

     The Nazis established a powerful terror system by controlling the police and expanding the power of the SS.

     The communists and socialists were bitterly divided and failed to present a united front.

     The communists were ordered by Stalin not to oppose the dictatorship but rather to await its inevitable collapse during economic crisis.

     Democratic opponents were too committed to legal methods. They were slow to appreciate that only the removal of Hitler could destroy the dictatorship.

     The conservative opponents were compromised by their alliances with the Nazis and sympathy for some of Hitler's policies.

     Resistance groups were isolated and uncoordinated.

     Church leaders were generally concerned only with defending their own interests within the system.

     Army leaders were trapped by their oath of allegiance to Hitler 2nd August 1934. Many were sympathetic to his policies of rearmament and military expansion.

     Resistance groups failed to motivate popular support.

     Most Germans were indifferent or non-political. They were impressed by the promises and apparent changes that Hitler brought about.

     Many people were enjoying improved standards of living and supported Hitler’s policy of destroying the Treaty of Versailles and restoration of national pride.

     Violence developed gradually during the years 1933-39. In 1936 there was a a relaxation during the Olympic Games.

     Violent excesses were attributed to Nazi subordinates, not to Hitler personally.



    2. Hitler: ‘weak dictator’ or ‘master in the Third Reich’

    A. The structure of the Nazi state and the personal role of Hitler

    How was the state Nazified 1933-1934?

     The key method was one of ‘co-ordination’ or ‘Gleichschaltung’ of state institutions and organisations.

     Gradually all parts of the government, administration and legal and judicial processes were brought under the control of the Nazi Party.

     The Civil Service, the Courts, the Police and Education were purged of all Jews and political opponents.

     The Free Trade Unions were abolished on 2nd May 1933 and replaced by the Nazi DAF (Deutsche Arbeit Front) led by Robert Ley.

     The Centre and Conservative Parties (DVP, DNVP) willingly dissolved: the Social Democrats were outlawed in July 1933.

     The Reichsrat (Upper House) and state parliaments were dissolved in January 1934. Nazi Governors (Reichstaltheller) were appointed to rule the states.

    How was the Nazi state organized?

    The Nazi state was not a monolithic structure: power was divided between several different overlapping and often competing systems.

    The State Civil Service

     This was professional and efficient and was initially protected from party interference by Interior Minister, Frick.

     Jews and political dissidents were purged in March 1933.

     Hess controlled all appointments from 1935: party membership became compulsory in 1939. Increasingly the civil service became subordinate to the Nazi machine.

     Its role increasingly became the implementation and enforcement of Nazi decrees.

     The civil service became progressively less efficient as it became more dominated by the Nazi Party. Bureaucracy increased because the Nazis were addicted to paper work.

    The Nazi Party

     This was initially too radical, unwieldy, divided and inexperienced to compete with the civil service. The calibre declined as the membership rapidly increased in the first half of 1933.

     Rival bodies were established to shadow, marginalise, by-pass or take over from state agencies.

     The party secretary, Rudolf Hess established a more efficient, informed and disciplined Department to influence policy making by 1937.

     The party controlled 32 Nazi regional bosses ‘Gauleiters’ and all the local District Group Cells and Block leaders. It had 5 million members and 500,000 officials.

     The party developed ‘affiliated’ or ‘front’ groups for workers, farmers and professional people.

    END OF PART ONE
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    How strong a dictator was Hitler?

     He was prepared to delegate large or ill-defined powers to his trusted henchmen.

     He did however maintain a dominant influence over appointments, promotions, dismissals and policy-making, sometimes interfering at the last minute.

     Hitler’s power as Chancellor in January 1933 was still limited by the democratic checks of the Weimar constitution. 8 out of a Cabinet of 11 were non-Nazis and Hitler did not have a majority in the Reichstag.

     Hitler’s dictatorship was established by the Enabling Act of March 1933, which gave him the right to govern without reference to the Reichstag for four years, and by the creation of a one-party state in June 1933.

     Following the death of Hindenburg (2 August 1934) Hitler absorbed powers of Chancellor and President as ‘Fuhrer’ of Germany. He was able to count upon the allegiance of the Army.

     The adoption of the title ‘Fuhrer’ was designed to emphasise a new relationship between Hitler and the German people.

     He attempted to develop a ‘cult of personality’ in which he became all-powerful and all-knowing. Children were encouraged to think of him as their father.

     The purge of army dissidents von Blomberg and von Fritsch (Feb.1938) consolidated his control of the army.

     Hitler became Commander in Chief of all the armed forces with a personal command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) headed by the loyalist Keitel.

    How efficient a dictator was Hitler?

     Hitler ruled by the ‘Fuhrerprinzip’ that enshrined his will as law and the source of all executive authority. He was the embodiment of the state and the representative of the will of the German people. This allowed Hitler to rule by decree without reference to any other body or organisation.

     The concept of an all powerful and omniscient Fuhrer was built up by the Nazi Party under Goebbels direction. This meant that Germans who were not members of the Party were forced to accept decisions against their own better judgement.

     This could be a major weakness as no one could refuse to obey an order from the Fuhrer, even when he was obviously wrong. During the war it became a serious weakness.

     In public his subordinates appeared to remain totally committed to his ideology and worked assiduously to implement the will of the Fuhrer.

     In private there was much competition between his leading lieutenants as each tried to expand their influence and control in the Party and Germany.

     But despite all appearances of efficiency and organisation, Hitler was lazy and chaotic in style, bored by meetings and committees and was away from Berlin for long periods of time.

     Hitler had limited knowledge of many areas of policies and was not prepared to carry out detailed research.

     Hitler could be unpredictable, at times delegating to subordinates on other occasions interfering, sometimes at the last moment.

     Hitler had five ‘separate secretaries’, all of whom attempted to organise his diary and programme. These were used by different leading Nazis to try to expand their personal empires with the Party and the state.


    How was Nazi domestic policy radicalised 1935 – 1939?

     Hitler’s dictatorship was consolidated 1933 – 1934 so policies had to be cautious and disguised by a legal façade in order to maintain alliances with conservative interests in politics, business and army.

     By 1935 the Nazis were able to pursue more radical ideas based upon their ideological priorities:

     The civil service and all professional bodies were Nazified by 1936.

     Leading military dissidents von Blomberg, the Defence Minister and von Fritisch, the Commander in Chief were purged in February 1938. 44 other Generals were retired or transferred and younger more Nazi inclined officers were promoted.

     Hitler became Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. The ultra-loyalist Keitel became head of the personal command of Wehrmacht and von Brauchitsch became its Commander in Chief.

     The conservative von Neurath was replaced by the Nazi von Ribbentrop as Foreign Minister in 1938.

     The conservative Schacht, who had masterminded the German economic recovery from 1933 to 1936, was sidelined and resigned (November 1937).

     He was replaced as Minister for Economics and Plenipotentiary-General for Economy by the more pliable Funk.

     The Nazis established greater control over economic planning with the establishment of the 4 year plan led by Hermann Goering.

     The Nazis began to challenge non-Nazi youth organisations. Membership of the Hitler Youth became compulsory in 1936. Attendance at meetings was more than 80% of German youth in 1939.

     The Nuremberg Laws (November 1935) deprived Jews from the rights of citizenship and banned marriage or any sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews.

     Jews were banned from schools and all places of entertainment.

     During the Kristallnacht (‘Crystal Night’) on the 9/10 November 1938, Jewish shops and synagogues were destroyed by stormtroopers. 600 Jews were murdered and 5,000 transported to concentration camps.

     Jews were excluded from any participation in commercial life after 1938.


    Why did Nazi domestic policy become more radical 1935 – 1939?

    This question has generated much discussion between Historians.

    ‘Intentionalists’ argue that:

     Hitler’s moderation 1933 – 1935 was merely a device to win conservative support by disguising his real ambitions.

     Having consolidated his dictatorship, Hitler attempted to implement his ‘World View’ (‘Weltanschaung’) as outlined in ‘Mein Kampf’. He was fulfilling a clearly defined ‘programme’.

     Policies were designed to prepare for European domination and to rid a Nazi controlled continent of all Jews.

     Policies should be seen as the product of the all-dominant will of the Fuhrer, unlimited by any pressure or the course of events.

     Hitler deliberately allowed different organisations to develop within the Party machine in order to create a dynamic entity.

     Hitler encouraged rivalry between his lieutenants in order to achieve greater efficiency and closer adherence to his will.

     For example, there was rivalry between Goering and Himmler for control of the security forces.

     On the other hand, Goering was allowed to establish control over the economy

    In opposition, ‘Structuralists’ or ‘Functionalists’ argue that:

     Hitler had no clear blueprint to follow.

     Nazi ideas were muddled, confused and contradictory. Different sections of the Party and state competed with each other. In some cases there was even competition within departments. For example Heydrich urged a more aggressive approach to security than Himmler and was eventually seen as a rival to his own leader.

     Policies emerged ad hoc in response to events. The purge of the Stormtroopers on 2 June 1934 was a response to pressure from business and the army, NOT a pre-determined policy.

     The Four Year Plan was the response to Hitler’s conflict with Schacht and Big Business, not part of Nazi policy for the economy.

     Major policies or events were sometimes NOT the work of Hitler or the Party, but were inspired or formulated by henchmen or by subordinate agencies.

     The extent to which Hitler was personally involved in the Reichstag Fire is not clear.

     The Nuremberg Laws (1935) and Kristallnacht (1938) were both prompted by pressure from party radicals led by Goebbels, although Goering subsequently tried to take credit for both.

     Hitler appears not to have been interested in rivalry between his leading lieutenants. Consequently all tried to expand their personal empires.

     Goering’s tried to increase his personal fortune, by taking control of political, social and economic aspects of the Nazi regime and state security.

     Resulting diversification weakened the German economy and subsequently the war effort.




    B. The power and role of Hitler’s lieutenants: Goebbels, Goering and Himmler

    Nazi Leaders

    How important was Josef Goebbels?

     He was Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.

     He was an able, intelligent, cultured Rhineland Catholic.

     He controlled all forms of media and supervised the Nazi coordination of cultural life.

     He was the creator and organiser of the Fuhrer myth.

     He exploited key events such as the Reichstag Fire, Potsdam Day and the Burning of Books.

     He was regarded as a wild radical by traditional German conservatives.

     He was the author of the Nuremberg Laws (1935) against Jews and ‘non-Aryans’.

     He organised the Berlin Olympics in 1936.

     He clashed with Hitler over the production of the crude ‘The Eternal Jew’ but favoured the more influential ‘Jud Suss’.

     In 1938 he was temporarily eclipsed by his disgrace with Hitler following his affair with the Czech actress, Lida Barova.

     He inspired the ‘Kristallnacht’ programme against Jews (9-10 November 1938), possibly as a way of regaining his prominence within the state.

     He argued against war in 1939 and became, for a time, overshadowed by Goering and Himmler.

    How important was Hermann Goering?

     He was a respected decorated wartime pilot who enjoyed close contacts with the army and big business and so played a key role in the negotiations to appoint Hitler chancellor.

     He was appointed a member of the Cabinet as a minister without portfolio.

     As Prussian Minister of the Interior he was a key figure (possibly responsible) for the Reichstag Fire.

     He was Speaker in the Reichstag.

     Established his own ‘Forschungsent’ (personal intelligence agency) involved in telephone-tapping and espionage.

     Took control of the Prussian police system, but lost this to Himmler in 1934.

     Compiled the death-lists for ‘Operation Hummingbird’ – the purge of the S.A. in June 1934. Announced the ‘story’ to international Press.

     In 1936 he secured the independence of the Luftwaffe from Army control, and became a close ally of Erhard Milch (Inspector General of the Luftwaffe).

     He expanded his personal patronage over positions in the bureaucracy and universities.

     Became a rival of Schacht and won control of the Four Year Plan in October 1936.

     He played a leading role in the Nazification of the economy and the commitment to autarky. He established close links with I G Farben (especially Carl Kranch) and founded the Reichswerke Hermann Goering.

     In 1938 he helped to engineer the dismissal of General Blomberg. He was rewarded by becoming a Field-Marshal.

     He controlled the Reich Defence Council, especially the procurement for the armed forces.

     He organised the Aryanisation of the economy in 1938.

     He played a leading role in preparation for the ‘Anschluss’ in March 1938 but was opposed to war during the Czech crisis in September. Had a moderate image in Britain and U.S.A.

    What was the role of Heinrich Himmler?

     He was the head of the SS and succeeded in expanding its membership from 200 in 1929 to 52,000 by 1933 and in securing its independence from the SA.

     He organised the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst, SD) under Reinhard Heydrich.

     He was appointed Munich Police President (March 1933) and became Commander of the Political Police throughout Bavaria.

     He set up the first concentration camp at Dachau and greatly extended the ranges of victims to be imprisoned.

     He became commander of all political police units outside Prussia (September 1933) and head of the Prussian Police and Gestapo (20 April 1934).

     He masterminded the purge of the SA on 30 June 1934 which paved the way for the emergence of the SS as an independent organisation.

     He took control of the political and criminal police throughout the Reich in June 1936 becoming Head of the Gestapo as well as Reichsfuhrer of the SS.

     He created Death’s Head Formations within the SS to control concentration camps and to defend ‘Aryan’ supremacy.

    DONE - enjoy
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    The SS (Schutzstaffel)

     Initially, Hitler’s personal bodyguard, the SS, led by Heinrich Himmler grew into one of the most powerful blocs in the dictatorship. The organization was administered by Oswald Pohl.

     It represented Nazi ideological and racial purity and was the main instrument in the Terror State.

     Concentration camp guards led by Theodor Eicke formed a separate SS unit known from 1936 as SS Totenkopfverbarde (SS Death’s Head Units)

     A Waffen SS (armed SS) was formed in March 1939 combining the SS-VT with the camp guards.
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    You are a gem!
    i shall type some of mine up later, but need to get some proper reivision done first!
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    how do u write a sustained arguement? In order to get a high level 4 or even level 5!?
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    This is from the edexcel mark scheme:
    Level 4:
    Sustained argument: response will be confident and balence the use of all sources.
    Selection from the sources will be appropriate
    Explicit well supported conclusions
    evidence will be well interrogated with confidence and discrimination
    answer will be analytical
    show explicit understanding of the issues relevant to the question.
    Relevant knowlege, appropraitely selected.
    developed evaluation throughout the answer.
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    So what topics came up in January 2007 and June 2006?

    Is it likely that antisemitism is going to be chosen because the dates have been extended from 1939 to 1945, to include the holocaust?
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    i was wondering if anyone had an answer which achieved 60/60 or something close, especially the part b one so 40/40 or something close. i've seen A grades and stuff but i need to achieve over 100 cuz i tanked on unit 4 (even though it was frustratingly easy cuz we'd done the exact same question twice in class) therefore i need a high A to counter by low grade so any help
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    i think they only have this exam in June, but past questions have been on Goering and the economy, propaganda and unity, opposition and resistance and consolidation of power (in that order). There's probably a good chance race policies and genocide will come up.
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    To be honest, I don't think so. Its a really emotional subject and I don't think that the exam board would expect you to try and tackle that under exam conditions without being subjective. I think that question a) will probably be Goebbels or Bormann, as Goebbels is the only one of the big three who has never come up, and Bormann was not powerful enough before 1939 to have come up before. Hoping that question b) is gonna be the usual strong/weak dictator, competing power blocs or strength/stability. Just make sure you get your historiography in there and it'll be alright! Hopefully...
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    Unless yours is different, Bormann can't come up as a specific henchman, he isn't on the syllabus. They've added Speer to the other three, so yes Goering and Himmler have come up previously but not Goebbels. So henchmen-wise it's probably Goebbels or Speer, but then again the a) question could be on opposition or resistance as that hasn't been done for a while, and b) may be a combination of the new elements: Hitler's role in the Holocaust vs the role of his henchmen.

    Hopefully not as that's crazily complicated!

    And why would they have put in the Holocaust if they weren't to examine it?! It's sure to come up at some point.
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    Can anyone clarify if its sensible to compare Hitler with other dictators like Stalin on the strong/ weak dictator? I`m sure the tutor mentioned something like that.
    Know scutter all about the fella though at the moment.

    Also hope it is Goebbels, Speer sounds too much of a choirboy to be a Nazi.
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    (Original post by Reuben_fan_extreme)
    Unless yours is different, Bormann can't come up as a specific henchman, he isn't on the syllabus. They've added Speer to the other three, so yes Goering and Himmler have come up previously but not Goebbels. So henchmen-wise it's probably Goebbels or Speer, but then again the a) question could be on opposition or resistance as that hasn't been done for a while, and b) may be a combination of the new elements: Hitler's role in the Holocaust vs the role of his henchmen.

    Hopefully not as that's crazily complicated!

    And why would they have put in the Holocaust if they weren't to examine it?! It's sure to come up at some point.
    I'm fairly sure the syllabus says including Goering, Goebbels, Himmler and Speer, so they could potentially ask about other people. I don't know whether they could ask a whole question about the Holocaust, my teacher thinks it's more likely they want you to use it as an example.
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    doesn't the syllabus just say his lieutenants
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    Right, here are some notes on political structure that might be helpful, if not, well.. it'll help me revise to type them up!

    Relationship between Party and State
    The Nazi party claimed sole responsibility for all aspects of German Life

    Some partly leaders were keep to establish control over civil and diplomatic services, and revolutionary aspects of the Party wanted to smash such establishments. They wanted to create a new kind of Germany

    However, many recognised that this part of government, the bureaucracy was too well established, and their power was not yet fully established for such action

    Hitler remained ambivalent on the issue, and this ambivalence partially explains the political ferment of these years and the need to placate numerous interest groups

    Promblems were also rooted in the background and composition of the party itself.

    It consisted of mass organisations, eg. The Nazi Youth, Strength through Joy. and so lacked a unifying structure

    It was in the mi-1930s, when Hess was made Deputy of the Party, that the party began to improve. He was given powers to do so
    1935: he was given the power to vet the appointments and promotion off and civil servants and oversee legislation
    1939: All civil servants had to be Party members, extending the Nazi's control over them.

    It was then under Bormann's influence that the Party became an insitute of government, rather than merely of opposition

    The Role of Hitler
    The problem with having a 'Fuhrer' is that it is impossible for one person to control every aspect of Government, consequnetly hitler was dependant on various subordinates.

    Hitler believes that will power was enough of a solution to msot problems encountered.

    He was not very decisive, and after 1935 Cabinet meetings drastically reduced.

    Hitler's apparent disinterest was the cause of much rivalry and competition in the Party, and decision making became the result of Hitler's whim or informal conversations.

    Intentionalists:
    They believes that the prevailing chaos was part of Hitler's plan to dividea nd rule - an attempt to maintain his own authority by encouraging division and confusion.

    Structuralists/Functionalists:
    Nazi regime and policies evolved due to circumstance and the confusion in government was a reflection of Hitler' limitations because of the continued influence of other sources of power.

    The Apparatus of the Police State
    This was the mainstay of the Thrid Reich, expeically the SS

    The SS developed a structure of its own, which kept it seperate from the state. It was linked to the state, due to its involvement in police matters

    The SS established a reputation for blind obedience to the Fuhrer and total commitment to the Nazi Cause.

    The SS preserved the Nazi regime with its brutal and repressive policies of law enforcement.

    The Army
    In any contry theArmy is vital for poltical stability.

    After the Night of the Long Knives, it appereared that hey were in a posistion of considerable strength.

    However, they now swore an Oath of alligence to Hitler. Since Soldiers are bound by obedience and discipline, making resisitance an act of trechory.

    Hitler was not very involved in the arm until 1938.
    Nov 1937 - Hossbach meeting, Hitler explains his foreign policy.
    Many members of the army disagreed and felt the army was no strong enough. This led to the removal of Blomberg and Fritsch in Feb 1938

    Hitler then made himself Commander-in-Chief of the entire military forces. And he moulded it to his needs. Though still strong the Army had been tamed.

    By the time the war started and resisitance would only be seen as unpatriotic

    Conclusion
    the Nazi party did not have the organisation or unity of purpose to dominate affairs completely.

    Historians have generally come to the conclusion that it was a 'polocratic' state, an alliance of different blocs that were dependant on each other.

    Bu hitler remained at the centre.

    Even this picture is too basic - the relationships between the blocs were far too static.

    For example, the Army was powerful, and hadbeen relied on, but this shirfted throughout the regime.

    It had been reduced to a junior role in the Party.

    the SS was the most domininat bloc, is it a coincdence that they were the most loyal to Hitler? the most obedient and dedicated?

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