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Monday 16th Mat 2016 psychology AS level

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    Unofficial Mark scheme Psychology AS
    Monday 16TH May 2016

    Section A
    Social Influence
    Question 1a
    Identify three behaviors that a minority use to influence a majority.
    (3 Marks)

    Question 1b
    Marcus wishes to go travelling during the summer but the rest of his friends want to go on a beach holiday.
    Using the points you identified in Question 1a briefly suggest how Marcus could convince his friends to go travelling.

    (3 Marks)

    Question 2a
    *Ethical and value of research scores study*

    How many participants gave ‘value of research’ score that was ‘<6’?
    (1 Mark)

    Question 2b
    What was the mode for the unethical scores and value of research scores?
    (2 Marks)

    Question 3
    Mode is a type of descriptive statistics

    Identify two more types of descriptive statistics and explain how these would be calculated
    (4 Marks)

    Question 4
    The study shown in Question 2 used self-report. Outline what is meant by self-report.
    (3 Marks)

    Question 5
    Using Asch’s findings, discuss two variables affecting conformity + two limitations of his study
    (8 Marks)

    Section B

    Question 6
    Outline psychological research of STM according to Multi-Store Model.
    (4 marks)

    Question 7
    Annie can still skateboard even though she has not done so for many years. Germaine can still remember his first day at university even though it was a long time ago. Billy can remember the names of the tools he needs to fix the tap.

    Using the example, identify 3 types of long term memory
    (6 Marks)

    Question 8
    The following are 5 evaluative statements of Cognitive Interview.
    Which two are correct?

    A. Police officers need more training
    B. The witnesses are treated poorly
    C. More time consuming
    D. Too confusing to be used on children

    (2 Marks)

    Question 9
    Discuss psychological research of working memory
    (12 Marks)

    Section C

    Question 10a
    Researcher A discovered that animals attach for comfort and not for food.
    Name Researcher A and the type of animal they studied.
    (2 Marks)

    Question 10b
    Researcher B found that animals attach to the first moving thing they see.
    Name Researcher B and the type of animal they studied.
    (2 Marks)

    Question 11
    The following are 5 evaluative points on the Romanian Orphan Studies
    Which two are correct?

    A. It is unethical because it involves separation
    B. It can provide long term results not just short term
    C. There are few case studies to support it
    D. Can be compared to a control group
    E. It is scientific because a cause and effect relationship can be established

    (2 Marks)

    Question 12
    Abi was brought up by two parents and secure and healthy upbringing. She now has two kids. Her own children are able to form trustworthy friendships and are confident.

    Explain referencing Abi and her family what psychologists have found about the internal working model
    (6 Marks)

    Question 13
    Discuss the Strange Situation as a method of assessing attachment
    (12 Marks)

    Mark Scheme
    Section A
    Social Influence

    Question 1a
    Consistency, commitment (Augmentation principle- willing to sacrifice for views) & flexibility (1+1+1)

    Question 1b
    Flexibility- show compromise e.g. Say they could go to the beach whilst travelling (1)

    Consistency- not changing his mind, repeatedly talking about going travelling (1)

    Commitment- giving his friends an ultimatum e.g. He won't join them in the holiday unless they go travelling (1).

    Question 2a
    2 people (1)

    Question 2b
    6 (1)
    7 (1)

    Question 3
    Median (1)
    • Put all the numbers in numerical order.
    • The median is the middle number. (1)

    Mean (1)
    • Add all values together
    • Divide by how many values there are

    Range (1)
    • Take largest score
    • Subtract smallest score (1)

    Question 4
    A method in which a person is asked to explain their feelings, opinions, or behaviours on a topic. (1)
    Examples include: questionnaires (1) / interviews (1) / likert scale (1)

    Question 5
    • Unanimity (1) when participants weren’t alone in their answer, they had confederate dissenters, they were less likely to conform. (1)
    • Task difficulty (1) increased conformity due to informational social influence. Task was ambiguous so needed guidance. (1)
    • Group size (1) increased conformity up to 3 people but no more than that (1)
    • A child of its time (1950) (1), as strong sense of anti-communism at the time (1) - Perrin and Spencer redid the experiment to show this (1) engineering student from the UK, Only one conformed out of 396 trials. (1)
    • Artificial task and situation (1) - meant demand characteristics may have influenced the results (1) - meant the participants knew the true nature of the experiment (1) - means the study lacks ecological/external validity (1)
    • Fiske 2014: “Asch’s groups weren’t very groupy” difficult to generalise to groups in society
    • Limited application (1) - different cultures, ethnocentric due to all participants being American males, difficult to generalise (1)
    • Ethical issues: deception (1) the benefits may outweigh the costs (1)
    • Ecological Validity - Lacked ecological validity (1), doesn’t relate to the real world where you compare lines (1)

    Credit any other relevant answers

    Section B

    Question 6
    Short term memory coding - Baddeley (2)
    • Acoustic
    Short term memory capacity - Jacobs & Miller (2)
    • 7 +- 2
    Short term memory duration - Peterson & Peterson (2)
    • 15-30 seconds

    Question 7
    Annie - Procedural (1)
    • Procedural is memory of actions and skills (1)
    Germaine - Episodic (1)
    • Episodic is memory of events (1)
    Billy - Semantic (1)
    • Semantic is memory of facts & knowledge about the world (1)

    Question 8
    • It is more time consuming than standard interview (1)
    • Requires police training (1)

    Question 9
    • Working memory model - Discuss (Central executive, Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSS), Phonological loop, episodic buffer)
    • Coding, capacity, duration of the Working memory (VSS: codes visually, Phonological loop: codes acoustically)
    • Dual task performance by Baddeley, KF by Shalice and Warrington, VSS by Klauer and Zhao.
    • Episodic buffer-Baddeley and Wilson
    • Baddeley et al - Phonological loop duration (1.5 seconds).

    Question 10a
    • Harlow (1)
    • Rhesus monkeys (1)

    Question 10b
    • Lorenz (1)
    • Goslings/Geese (1)

    Question 11
    • It can provide long term results
    • Can be compared to control group

    Question 12
    • Internal Working Model (IWM) is a template/mental representation of primary attachment.
    • Bowlby’s stated relationships from early age are a continuation due to the behaviour of the infant's attachment figure, this promotes an internal working model of relationship
    • Refer to adult relationships which says people tend to base their parenting model, therefore base their parenting on generations throughout family continuity
    • Reference to Bailey et al 2007 study found that the majority of women had the same attachment to their babies as their own mothers - supports Bowlby’s stated relationships from early age are a continuation due to the behaviour of the infant’s attachment figure, this promotes an internal working model of relationship.
    • Bowlby’s maternal deprivation and 44 juvenile thieves

    Question 13
    Explanation of the Strange Situation.
    Procedure (not required):
    1. Mother, baby and experimenter (lasts less than one minute).
    2. Mother and baby alone.
    3. Stranger joins mother and infant.
    4. Mother leaves baby and stranger alone.
    5. Mother returns and stranger leaves.
    6. Mother leaves; infant left completely alone.
    7. Stranger returns.
    8. Mother returns and stranger leaves.

    Attachment types:
    Varying percentages depending on source
    • Secure: Explore but return to mother. Show moderate separation/stranger anxiety, comforted at reunion.
    • Avoidant: Explore, no secure base behaviour. Little distress and anxiety.
    • Resistant: Seek great proximity, explore less. Huge stranger and separation anxiety. Resist comfort at reunion.

    • Ethnocentric.
    • Only mothers used. Primary attachment figure may be father, sibling, grandparent, etc.
    • Lab study - lacks mundane realism/ecological validity.
    • Observation - inter-observer reliability.
    • Lab study - highly replicable.
    • Only middle class families used - may not be generalizable to upper/lower.
    • Cultural differences
    • Unethical - Child did not give consent and psychological harm was caus
    • Unethical - Observations were recorded without Child’s consent and psychological distress.

    Predicted Grade Boundaries

    From first 2014 paper.
    A 54
    B 49
    C 44
    D 39
    E 34
    Total 72 marks

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