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# AQA GCSE Physics P1 unofficial mark scheme

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1. Some hard some easy let's get a mark scheme compiled

1. Frequency determines pitch (1)

2. Echo (1)

3. The sound waves bends (1)

4. Waves length larger/equal to than the bat (1)

5. Longitudinal wave: Vibrates/oscillations parallel (90°) to the energy transfer (2)

6. Communications of:
1. Infra red - remote controls (1)
2. Microwaves - mobile phones/satellite (1)

7. Both microwaves and infrared radiation: (2)
1. Transverse waves
2. Travel at the speed of light in a vacuum

8. CMBR (1)

9. Provides evidence for the big bang theory (1)

10. It's not economical because: (2)
1. Small village (very few people)/remote location so connecting to the national grid is not economically viable/profitable
2. Micro generation has a higher efficiency of generation
3. They live on mountains so cables would need to travel very far to connect to them (lots of energy loss)

11. Wind turbines vs Hydroelectric generator: (6)
1. Wind more expensive (£50,000) than hydroelectric (£20,000)
2. Wind generated the most (10 KW) than hydroelectric (8KW)
3. Hydroelectric provides constant energy so more reliable whereas wind varies so not as reliable.
4. Hydroelectric generators ruin the habitat.
5. Wind turbines visual pollution/eye sore.

12. The heat escapes into the surrounding so not all the heat is received by the food/very little useful energy. (2)

13. Fins - increased surface area so more particles are exposed to to heat (1)

14. Black metal - absorbs infra red radiation so heats better/metal is a good conductor of heat (1)

15. As you increase the temperature, the rate of which it emits infra-red radiation will increase (because of a bigger temperature increase) (2)

16. Vacuum in kettle prevents heat loss through conduction and convection (2)

17. Temp. change = 46,200 / 0.5x4,200 = 22, New temp. = 100-22 = 78° (3)

18. Useful energy = 0.15 x 3.2 = 0.48KJ (2)

19. P = E/t = 46,200 / 2 x 60 x 60 = 6.4 W (2)

20. France would continue using nuclear power because: (2)
1. It's the cheapest the generate
2. It provides the largest amount of energy (and extra could he sold for profits)

21. Disadvantages of nuclear stations: (2)
2. Expensive to decommission
3. Very dangerous, if explosions occur, people could die/get serious illnesses

22. When the efficiency increases by just 5%, it costs an extra £17.50 to manufacture, which is expensive and eventually not be economically viable/profitable. (2)
(The same comment can be made about the £40 per square meter one with only 10% increase and 8x more expensive)

23. Control Variable: (1)
1. The volume of the containers are the same
2. Airflow in the room
3. Temperature of the surroundings
4. Anything else about the beaker being the same ie width thickness material
24. Data logger vs Thermometer: (2)
1. Higher resolution (decimal points) (Aka more accurate)
2. Displays the numbers so more precise as it reduces estimation from reading the thermometer
3. Creates a graph

25. 20-13.25 / 100 = 0.0675 °/s (2)

26. They all decreased at a decreasing rate (1)

27. A because it decreased in temperature the least (2)

28. Decreasing the volume increases the surface area so more evaporation meaning it will lose temperature quicker. (1)

29. Particles in the water with the highest kinetic energy are able to break the intermolecular forces between the particles/escape the liquid thus reducing the overall kinetic energy of the water. This causes it to cool down. (3)

30. Factors of heat transfer to coffee: (2)
1. The amount of energy the heater receives
2. The temperature of the room

31. The heater heats the bottom of the glass, making the particles vibrate/gain kinetic energy, which pass on to the neighbouring particles until the whole bottom of the glass is heated. (3)

32. Particles near the heater gain kinetic energy so they become less dense and rise. They displace the cooler, more dense particles which then sink. These then gain kinetic energy, decrease density and rise and this continues as convection currents. (4)uction , convection.
2. Sound waves from Bats. Filling in the missing phrases.

Sound waves reflected are called?

The average decrease of temp (on the graph)

Microwaves in the universe were called.

Why is this important information?

The glass coffee cup questions.

The vacuum kettle.
3. (Original post by Ollie1999)
Some hard some easy let's get a mark scheme compiled

1. Frequency
2z Echos
4. Equal to
Cheaper
Wind is dependent on the weather, if it is windy or not
Wind produces noise and visual

Hydro produces less than the average of wind
Hydro destroys habitats
Produces a lot of electricity
Isn't dependant on the weather

High decommissioning costs
5. (Original post by RubiksNinja)
Cheaper
Wind is dependent on the weather, if it is windy or not
Wind produces noise and visual

Hydro produces less than the average of wind
Hydro destroys habitats
Did you quote any of the costings in the table?

I'd assume you could use the output energy (constant) from Hydro as a source of advantage 8kW @ £20k. Whereas the 10kW[?] from the wind turbines costing £50k. Constant energy from the Hydro station is more reliable than the reliability of wind due to weather conditions.
6. (Original post by RubiksNinja)
Produces a lot of electricity
Isn't dependant on the weather

High decommissioning costs
Pro's I had the same basically. Except I had it is a reliable source.
7. Kettle question...

Infrared i think.
8. (Original post by _Xenon_)
Kettle question...

Infrared i think.
It was asking about the vacuum in the kettle. How it is useful or something
9. Temperature after 2 hours was 78 degrees Celsius
10. (Original post by redsoules)
It was asking about the vacuum in the kettle. How it is useful or something
The vacuum reduces energy transfer by convection. There's no air particles trapped between the layers of plastic so there are no convection currents.
11. (Original post by SugarBubbles2000)
Temperature after 2 hours was 78 degrees Celsius
Sorry. It asked for TEMPERATURE CHANGE not the actual temp. It was 22oC

Well ****. This is what I thought It asked anyway? It gave SHC, what we needed to find out what the temperature difference. and the difference was 22. From my calculations anyway??
12. No it asked for the temperature after 2 hours
13. (Original post by alidas147)
No it asked for the temperature after 2 hours
I'm almost certain that it asked for the temperature difference? It was the missing part of the equation?
14. (Original post by redsoules)
Did you quote any of the costings in the table?

I'd assume you could use the output energy (constant) from Hydro as a source of advantage 8kW @ £20k. Whereas the 10kW[?] from the wind turbines costing £50k. Constant energy from the Hydro station is more reliable than the reliability of wind due to weather conditions.
Yeah i did quote figures from the table
15. (Original post by redsoules)
It was asking about the vacuum in the kettle. How it is useful or something
Sorry got confused I mean the sauce pan!
16. (Original post by redsoules)
I'm almost certain that it asked for the temperature difference? It was the missing part of the equation?
I am 99.9% sure it asked for temperature after 2 hours...
17. (Original post by alidas147)
No it asked for the temperature after 2 hours
Temp change was 22 degrees, add that to the 100 degrees that the water already was and after 2 hours of heating you get 122 degrees
18. Hmm... well either way... I'll get 1 mark at least for showing the working out.

What about the detectors of thermometers and the other probe?

I wrote something silly like... better resolution of the electric thermometers and that the probes can conduct in water to give better readings... added as well to the first point a better degree of accuracy?....
19. (Original post by bossboy9360)
Temp change was 22 degrees, add that to the 100 degrees that the water already was and after 2 hours of heating you get 122 degrees
Actually I thought it was two hours after it had been heated so you had to subtract 22 from 100, to get 78
20. It was decreasing temperature. it said

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