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    Why people join groups? People join groups for a multitude of reasons. A major reason is that group membership often results in some form of need satisfaction on the part of the individual. Membership into a group can fulfil numerous needs, some which group members may not realize they are benefiting from:Companionship – groups provide members to simply be in the company of other people.Survival and security – From a historic or evolutionary perspective our ancestors would partake in group experiences for hunting and defence.Affiliation and status – membership into various groups can provide individuals with certain socials status’ or security.Power and control– with group membership comes the opportunity for leadership roles; individuals who feel they need to exert their power and opinions over others can have such experiences within group settings.Achievement – groups have the capability to achieve more than individuals acting alone.Organizations typically form groups in order to accomplish work related tasks; however, as a member of a work group you may unintentionally reap the numerous benefits independent of the original group construct.What are the stages of group development?FormingIn this stage, most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven't fully understood what work the team will do. Others are simply excited about the task ahead.As leader, you play a dominant role at this stage, because team members' roles and responsibilities aren't clear.This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues.StormingNext, the team moves into the storming phase, where people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members' natural working styles. People may work in different ways for all sorts of reasons but, if differing working styles cause unforeseen problems, they may become frustrated.Storming can also happen in other situations. For example, team members may challenge your authority, or jockey for position as their roles are clarified. Or, if you haven't defined clearly how the team will work, people may feel overwhelmed by their workload, or they could be uncomfortable with the approach you're using.NormingGradually, the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues' strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.Now that your team members know one another better, they may socialize together, and they are able to ask one another for help and provide constructive feedback. People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal, and you start to see good progress towards it.PerformingThe team reaches the performing stage, when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team's goal. The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.AdjourningMany teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organizational restructuring.define social loafing and its effect on group performance?social loafing is the phenomenon of a person exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone.Effects on GroupsAs explained in the Ringlemann Effect, output decreases with increased group membership, due to social loafing. This effect is demonstrated in another study by Latane, et al. In this experiment subjects were asked to yell or clap as loudly as possible. As in Ringlemann’s study, the overall loudness increased while individual output decreased. Effects on IndividualsOne potential side effect is the lack of satisfaction that a member of the group might experience, thereby becoming disappointed or depressed at the end of project.Carron, Burke & Prapavessis, 2004) Social loafing can also negatively impact individuals in the group who perform the bulk of the work.The ability for an individual to participate in social loafing increases at the group increases in number.Group decision making technique?Brainstorming:This technique involves a group of people, usually between five and ten, sitting around a table, generating ideas in the form of free association. The primary focus is on generation of ideas rather them on evaluation of ideas.ii. Nominal Group Technique (NGT):Nominal group technique is similar to brainstorming except that the approach is more structured. iii. Delphi Technique:This technique is the modification of the nominal group technique, except that it involves obtaining the opinions of experts physically separated from each other and unknown to each other. This insulates group members from the undue influence of others. iv. Didactic interaction:This technique is applicable only in certain situations, but is an excellent method when such a situation exists.Politics power in action?Political behaviour: activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.The conflict process?Stage 1: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityThe first step in the conflict process is the presence on conditions that create opportunities for conflict to develop. These cause or create opportunities for organizational conflict to rise.Stage 2: Cognition and PersonalizationConflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether or not conflict exists is a perception issue. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists. Because conflict is perceives does not mean that is personalized.Stage 3: IntentionsIntentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene between people’s perception and emotions and their overt behavior.Stage 4: BehaviorThis is a stage where conflict becomes visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempt to implement each party’s intentions.Stage 5: OutcomesThe action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result in consequences. These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group’s performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance.What socialization means?a continuing process whereby anindividual acquires a personalidentity and learns the norms,values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.
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