can anyone help with this organic chemistry?
Many pharmaceutical drugs can have their effectiveness altered by making minor changes to functional groups and/or side chains, for example penicillins come in a variety of forms.
Penicillins can be made in the laboratory by reacting 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) with a suitable acyl chloride, for example penicillin F is synthesised from 6-APA using CH3-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-COCl which can be made from the corresponding carboxylic acid.
As a pharmaceutical chemist in the laboratory you aim to synthesise a range of acyl chlorides to make some modified penicillins but choose to work with the acid, CH3-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-COOH rather than the more reactive acyl chloride.
Show how you could convert the acid into the hydroxy acid CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH2COOH, giving the reagents and essential conditions for each stage and the name and structural formula for each intermediate.
btec applied science
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