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AS Geography 20 mark Essay

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    I have just started sixth form and this is my first 20 mark essay in geography, Please may you leave feedback on how I can improve this as I don't really know what I'm doing
    To what extent are urban issues the same across the world? (20 marks)
    All Urban areas suffer from problems of an economic, social, political and environmental nature but whilst they may share some similarities the rapid increase in the population of cities in many cities which are not very well developed compared with that of well-developed cities has meant the scale of the problems are far worse in poorer parts of the world. Likewise, there are similarities in the solutions that are required across the world but the resources available to authorities in the richer parts of the world mean that often their schemes to solve the problems they experience can be far more comprehensive and ambitious than in poorer parts of the world.In Mumbai there are many social issues, the population is 22 million (2015) and it is a developing megacity. Only 1 in 1000 people has access to toilets. This shows just how uncomfortable their living spaces are in Mumbai and the scale of how the rapid growth of the city can’t accommodate so many people. 55% of the city’s population are living in slums which have poor sanitation, therefore having dangerous impacts on the health and wellbeing of the people who live there. The city also struggles with huge environmental issues e.g. heavy pollution problem as over 700,000 cars are on the roads each day, the pollution in the city is bad for the environment and contributes to global warming as well as making the streets of Mumbai unclean. As a result of the low quality of life in the slums and the struggle to find space and other necessities in order to survive, people begin to commit crimes such as murder, burglary and there is an increase in overall violence. In similarity, Sa͂o Paulo shares many of the same issues. Sa͂o Paulo is a maturing megacity with a population of 11.89 million (2016). ¼ of the population is living in slums; this is the largest slum population in South America. This equally results in a high crime rate. The slums in Sao Paulo are situated mainly in the centre of the city. As a result of the social issues; low quality of life and the conditions in which people are living, 30% of the population are struggling with mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders, and only 20% of that figure is able to get help and support with this. Slums continue to grow with the rapid population increase and this can lead to diseases such as the zika virus which spreads in the unsanitary slums. In addition, there is a massive shortage of housing and economic problems as the lack of employment means more people work in the informal business sector (e.g. taxi drivers). Another environmental issue which the city has is a water shortage; water is a vital part of survival which indicates just how serious Sa͂o Paulo’s problems are. The city’s coffee export centre collapsed leaving the city in a difficult economic crisis. Paradoxically, London which is an established megacity and hosts a population of 8.63 million, faces very different problems. Unlike Sa͂o Paulo and Mumbai the quality of life is higher in London, however, this means that the house prices are extortionate. People cannot afford to pay the price to live there, For example, the average home costs £19.2m in Kensington Palace Gardens. In similarity, London shares the issue of congestion on the roads as there is a lot of traffic, the pollution levels are dangerously high making it one of the most polluted city in Europe. Moreover, an economic issue in London is that there is an inequality of income leading to a huge gap between what is deemed as ‘poor’ and ‘mega rich’. This low-income issue can lead to poverty and other issues such as political debates and disagreements, this adds to the political issues in London because of its high status. ba˭74�*z

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