Define individualism and explain its implications for the state Using examples distinguish between individualism and collectivism Distinguish between individualism and collectivism identifying the implications of each for the state PLAN BELOW- FIRST IS INDIVIDUALISM- DEFINE- WHO BELIEVES IN THIS? DIFFERENT TYPES- EXAMPLES- IMPLICATION FOR STATE- SOCIALLY AND ECONOMICALLY DO SAME FOR COLLECTIVISM REMEBER WHEN COMPARING INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECITIVISM ALWAYS USE WORDS SUCH AS ... COLLECTIVISM IS DIFFERENT TO INDIVIDUALISM BECAUSE... THEIR VIEW OF SOCIETY OR ECONOMY IS DIFFERENT ETC.
INTRODUCTION Define individualism- who believes in this? 1. It’s a core principle- Both ML and CL support this= believe this is necessary to ensure the individual is free. 2. The rights and interests are considered supreme compared to social or collective groups 3. Rights and interests of an individual should not be sacrificed for the majority.
4. However ML and CL view of individuals are different 5. After the Feudal period, egoistical individuals was emphasised by classical liberal as the only condition where meritocracy and social mobility could exist. This meant that the individual themselves built their own identity and chose their own path. 6. CL would argue that ML have abandoned Liberalism and embraced collectivism, however ML would say unregulated capitalism and lack of state intervention instead hindered individuals from becoming autonomous, which is why ML revised their views of individualism, and built upon the CL views to adapt/evolved to the new society.
-Egoistical individualism CL endorse this= based on view of human nature Positive view of human nature= Egoistical individualism= self-interested, self-seeking, self-reliant negative freedom- to ensure individual liberty to make your own choices is protect form external factors Example: freedom of speech/assembly/religion
Implication for state:- Socially:- Methodological individualistic view= Due to this reason society is atomistic= it is a collection of individuals and so any references to society it shouldn’t group them ‘Minimal state’ role- threat to individual liberty and idea of ‘self-help’ or individual responsibility – therefore negative attitude towards state= anti- statist State- rolling back the state- according to Locke should only be there to protect individuals ‘natural rights’= legal and political rights Ethical individualism= implies that moral priority should be given to the rights, needs or interests of the individual= to choose what they want Legal equality Protection of minorities from tyranny of majority Economically:- Laissez faire- Minimal government- free market- because: allows economic freedom However, individualism is not always or necessarily anti-statist Classical liberals believe that individual self-striving is the justifies the existence of a sovereign power, albeit one that has a minimal role- ‘government is best which governs least’ (Thomas Jefferson) That protects natural rights according to Locke- protect: ‘life, liberty and property’ Economically: Market individualism - strict meritocracy and rugged individualism- work hard to develop skills and to gain potential Free-market= ensures economic liberalism as there is laissez-faire government Developmental -stresses individuality and the ideas of personal growth and human flourishing. This notion has been used to support positive freedom and qualified interventionism. Humans- have a sense of social responsibility State role:- Bigger state role- Enabling state- get rid of social evils Qualified intervention- qualified welfare- only for those suffering from social disadvantage- ‘help them help themselves’- provide conditions for human flourishing and equal of opportunities- not a nanny state- don’t create a dependent state- instead create autonomous individuals
Economy:- • Manage- not control unlike socialists
INTRODUCTION FOR COLLECITIVISM Define collectivism The interest of a collective group above the individual This is because people (social beings) want to achieve goals collectively rather than independently and the belief that organised groups are more likely to be effective than individual actions, as they believe it is morally and practically superior
Socialism support collectivism To ensure this State Bigger state role needed Social core of human nature- people are social beings by nature- this is why cooperation is better than competition • Stimulate growth of cooperative enterprises= ACHIEVE MUTUAL BENEFIT • Self-govern communities or bigger state to make people socially equal and cooperative • When people are socially and economically equal it helps to make people more sympathetic towards each other rather than being competitive • In this environment collective interest over ride individual ones to produce harmony • Positive freedom • Welfare, opportunities, fulfilment • Social equality • Socialism + anarchism