In this section we cover the following topics:
- Manufacturing accounts - sections and construction
- Factory profits and provision for unrealised profits on stocks
So far, we have considered the final accounts of sole traders who do not make the goods that they sell. In all prior examples, the firms generate profits by purchasing stock and then selling this stock for a price higher than the cost meaning a profit has been earned - i.e. the difference between sales and the cost of those goods that were sold. In reality, most firms do not act in this way. Even if a firm does not make its own products, it is likely to add something to the products themselves.
If a firm actually produces the goods that they sell then there will be no obvious 'purchases' figure to include in the trading account. The costs incurred in the production of goods will appear instead and these will be calculated in a manufacturing account.
A manufacturing account shows the cost of producing the goods that are sold during an accounting period. It is split into the following sections:
- Prime cost - Direct costs of physically making the products (e.g. raw materials)
- Overhead cost - Other indirect costs associated with production but not in a direct manner
The cost of manufacturing the products will be the total of the prime cost and the overhead cost added together. This total factory cost (or production cost) will then be transferred to the trading account where it will appear instead of the 'normal' purchases figure.
The prime cost covers all the costs involved in physically making the products and other costs that are directly related to the level of output. These are usually known as direct costs and common examples would include:
- Direct materials
- Direct labour/wages
- Other direct costs (e.g. packaging, royalties)
Cost of raw materials consumed
Within the prime cost adjustments will have to be made for opening and closing stocks of raw materials. There may also be carriage inwards charged on the raw materials and returns outwards of materials sent back to their original supplier. The overall charge for materials is referred to as cost of raw materials consumed, this should be highlighted when drawing up a manufacturing account and it is calculated as follows:
|-||Opening stock of raw materials|
|-||Purchases of raw materials|
|Carriage inwards on raw materials||Less|
|Returns outwards of raw materials|
|Less||Closing stock of raw materials|
|Equals||Cost of raw materials consumed|
A true direct cost will vary directly with the level of output. If the output level doubles, then we would expect a direct cost to also double. If the cost does not behave in this manner then it may be an indirect cost and not a direct cost.
Royalties is sometimes included within the prime cost. These are a cost that is paid to the owner of a copyrighted process. Usually a fee is paid for each product that uses this process and therefore the total royalty cost will be directly proportional to the level of output.
Follow the link below to see an example of a prime cost calculation.
This section includes all other expenses concerned with the production of output but not in a direct manner. This means that if the level of production increased, then these expenses may also increase but not by the same proportion. These are sometimes known as indirect costs, factory overheadsor indirect manufacturing costs. Common examples of overhead costs would include:
- Factory rent
- Indirect labour
- Depreciation of factory plant and equipment
Depreciation of fixed assets should be included in this section only if it is depreciation on assets included for production. For example, depreciation of machinery would appear as an overhead cost but depreciation of office equipment would appear in the profit and loss account as an expense as would be expected in a non-manufacturing organisation.
Once the overhead costs have been calculated they will need adding to the total of the prime cost. This will give us the production cost of the goods. However, the production cost will need adjusting for goods which are not yet finished.
Make sure you add the total for factory overheads to the prime cost and don't subtract!
Allocation of expenses
Some expenses may be split between two areas of the financial statements. For example, an expense may be split between the prime cost and the overhead costs. Similarly, expenses may be split between the manufacturing account and the profit and loss account. The term office expense is often used to illustrate an expense that will be allocated to the profit and loss account.
If there are prepayments or accruals to adjust for then this should be completed before any split between the sections of the financial statements.
Follow the link below to see an example of the allocation of expenses.
Goods which are not finished are known as work-in-progress. The opening balance of work-in-progress is added on to the production cost and the work-in-progress left at the end of the year will need subtracting to give us the cost of the goods completed during the period we are dealing with.
Stocks in manufacturing organisations
There are three types of stock that we deal with in manufacturing accounts. These are as follows:
- Raw materials - the purchases of these will be adjusted for opening stock and closing stock in the prime cost.
- Work-in-progress - partly completed goods will be dealt with at the end of the manufacturing account.
- Finished goods - opening and closing stocks will be dealt with, as is normal, in the trading account
All three types of closing stocks will appear as current assets on the balance sheet.
Notice that for all three types, the principle is the same as ever: add on the opening stock and deduct the closing stock. The difference lies in the stage at which you do this for each type of stock.
Factory profits and unrealised profit
One of the main reasons why firms manufacture their own goods, rather than purchasing them from another firm, is that the goods can be manufactured at a lower cost than the purchase price from elsewhere.
The difference between the cost of manufacture and the cost of 'bought in' goods is known as factory profit, or profit on manufacturing. Any factory profit will boost the overall profits for the firm but is kept separate from the gross profit until the net profit has been calculated, when they would be added together. Any factory loss incurred should also be kept separate until the net profit is calculated. By keeping the profits separate, this allows the managers of a firm to see how profit had been earned - did it arise out of efficiency in manufacturing, or other areas of the firm?
It is hard to estimate how much a firm would 'save' by manufacturing its own products rather than purchasing them from elsewhere. As a result, factory profit is usually calculated by simply adding on an additional percentage of the production cost to give us the 'transfer price' which will replace the purchases figure in the trading account. This procedure is known as marking-up the production cost.
However, if we mark-up the production cost then the value for the cost of goods sold in the trading account will be higher. This means that the final gross and net profits for the firm would be lower. To cancel out this effect, the factory profit is added on again at the end of the profit and loss account. This time it is added on to the net profit.
|Manufacturing||Add factory profit to cost of production|
|Deduct factory loss from cost of production|
|Profit & loss||Add factory profit to net profit|
|Deduct factory loss from net profit|
The following data has been extracted from the books of D Scaife Ltd. At 31 December 2001:
|Stocks at 1 January 2001:|
|Work in progress||7,650|
|Purchases of raw materials||89,000|
|Rent and rates||18,000|
|Depreciation for the year:|
- 1. Stocks at 31.12.01:
|Work in progress||8,420|
- 2. Rent, rates and electricity are to be apportioned: Factory 75%, Office 25%
- 3. Finished goods are to be transferred to the trading account at a profit of 20% on factory cost.
Have a go at producing a manufacturing, trading and profit and loss account for D.Scaife for the year ended 31 December 2001. Follow the link below once you have had a go to compare your answer with ours.
Unrealised manufacturing profit from unsold stock
If we allow for factory profit then this will mean that the value of any closing stock would actually include an amount of factory profit in its valuation. The prudence concept disallows any anticipation of future profits - how can we say that the value of stock includes profits when we have yet to sell the stock? - and therefore we would need to deduct this profit by making a provision for any profits on unsold stock.
This provision for unrealised profit on unsold stock should be treated in the same way as any other provision. This means that the change in the provision should appear in the profit and loss account as a debit (if it is increased) or as a credit (if it is decreased) which means this would be added on to the gross profit.
|Increasing the provision||Increasing the provision|
|Debit Profit & loss with the increase||Credit Provision account with the increase|
|Decreasing the provision||Decreasing the provision|
|Debit Provision account with the decrease||Credit Profit & loss with the decrease|
The adjustment for unrealised profit on stock should only be made if implied in the question.
Once the factory profit on the closing stock has been calculated then the adjustment would have to be made on the balance sheet. In our previous example, the stock would appear as follows:
|Less provision for unrealised profit||6000||24000|
The following balances have been extracted from the books of Bohanna
Company Ltd as at 30 June 2003.
|Stocks at 1 July 2002:||£|
|Work in progress||7,900|
|Electricity and power||13,000|
|General factory expenses||27,000|
|General office expenses||28,950|
|Purchases of raw materials||124,000|
|Depreciation of plant and machinery||9,000|
|Provision for unrealised profit||4,500|
- 1. At 30 June 2003 stocks were as follows:
|Work in progress||6,950|
- 2. Electricity and power and Maintenance expenses are to be apportioned 80% to the factory and 20% to the company's offices.
- 3. At 30 June 2003 an electricity bill of £800 remained unpaid and maintenance costs paid in advance amounted to £760.
- 4. The company always transfers finished goods from the factory to the warehouse at factory cost plus 25%.
Exam tips - manufacturing accounts
- It is vital that you learn the correct sections of the final accounts of the manufacturing organisation - prime cost, factory overheads, and trading and profit and loss account.
- Only items directly linked to the level of output will appear in the prime cost calculations.
- Items related to production but not directly will appear in the factory overheads section of the manufacturing account.
- When considering depreciation, only depreciation of productive assets (such as machinery) will appear in the manufacturing account.
- Show all your workings for adjustments (e.g. show the calculations for cost of raw materials consumed).
- Look out for any factory profits which will be 'marked-up' at the end of the manufacturing account.
- If factory profit has been added then make sure you add it again at the end of the profit and loss account - to cancel out of the effect of increasing production cost.
- It is the change in the provision of unrealised profits that will appear in the profit and loss account!
- The full provision for unrealised profits will be deducted form finished goods on the balance sheet.
- Show all kinds of (closing) stocks on the balance sheet.
- Never put items in twice - you will automatically get no marks for this item - if you don't know then take an (educated) guess.
These notes are aimed at people studying for AQA A Level Accounting Unit 3, but will also be suitable for other courses and exam boards.
Originally submitted by duke_stix on TSR Forums.