- Atomic Masses = the number of protons and neutrons
- Atomic Number = number of protons and therefore also the number electrons
- Electron Shielding = This is where electrons in the inner shells of a atom stop the full charge of the nucleus effect electrons outside that shell, e.g. if a shell has 6 electrons it will reduce the effective nuclear charge by 6+.
- Enthalpy = This is the energy change of a substance per mole.
|Particles in the atom||Charge in Coulombs||Mass in Kg||Relative Charge||Relative mass|
|P proton||1.602 x 10–9||1.672 x 10-27||+1||1|
|N neutron||0||1.675 x 10-27||0||1|
|E electron||1.602 x 10–9||9.109 x 10-31||-1||1/1836|
- Energy Transfer = Mass ´ Specific heat capacity ´Temperature change
- Energy Transferred = M x C x DT
- For enthalpy divide by the number of moles.
- Concentration = moles / volume
- Working out formula by percentage using RAM, divide the percentage by the RAM, E.g. for 22.02% of Carbon(12), 4.59% of hydrogen(1), 73.39% of Bromide(80): we get:
- 22.02 / 12 = ~ 2; 4.59 / 1= ~ 5; 73.39 / 80 = ~ 1 \ C2 H5 Br
- At 20°C; 1 mole of gas will occupy 24 dm3, this is the R.T.P.
- At 0°C; 1 mole of gas will occupy 22.414 dm3, this is the S.T.P.
- Moles = Mass / RAM