Models of Development
Rostow’s Model of Development
Traditional Subsistence Economy
- Agricultural Basis
- Little Manufacturing.
- Few external links
- Low levels of population growth
No longer present in MEDCs
Preconditions for take-off
- External links developed
- Resources increasingly exploited by MNCs or colonial countries.
- Countries begin to develop urban system (Primate cities)
- Inequalities develop between core & periphery.
- Population increases
No longer present in MEDCs
Take-off to maturity
- Economy expands rapidly – especially manufacturing goods
- Multiplier effects cause regional inequalities to intensify.
Growth may be natural (MEDCs), forced (FCCs) or planned (LEDCs)
Drive to maturity (Sustained growth)
- Diversification of the economy
- Development of the service industry
- Growth spreads to other regions & sectors
- Population growth slows/stabilises
Age of mass-consumption
- Advanced urban-industrial systems
- High production & consumption of consumer goods
- Population growth slows considerable
Weaknesses of the model
- The model is anglo-centric – based on the experiences of N America & Europe.
- Aspatial – Doesn’t look at variations within a country.
- Assumed that each country was economically & politically free.
- Assumes all countries follow the same route to development.
The model is quite crude, as there are no obvious linear stages in development although countries do seem to exhibit similar patterns of development.
A dynamic & integrated set of industries organised around an industrial sector is a growth pole. They are used to regenerate areas as they cause rapid growth & initiate the multiplier effect. They attract new industries until development becomes sustainable. They usually require large-scale investment from government. However, they can lead to inequalities.
This is the relationship between MEDCs & LEDCs. Core areas are MEDCs where there is greater development & concentration of industry. LEDCs are outside core areas and so are periphery areas as they are less developed. Often the periphery is dependent on the core.
This works well in Brazil etc.
There are 4 areas of the model:
- Core – usually capital city or colonial port
- Upward transitional stage – benefits from being close to the core.
- Downward transitional areas – Distant from the core in the periphery.
- Resource frontiers – Periphery exploited for primary goods.
Dependency theory is where countries become dependent on powerful colonial powers. The powerful country exploits resources in the colony and so the colony becomes dependent on the powerful country as it imports goods from the colony. LEDCs were forced to take on a dependent role in the global economy. To allow these countries to develop some protectionism of trade was necessary to allow development to be sustainable. Import substitution was necessary so that the country produced goods for itself.
Myrdal’s Cumulative Causation
This was to explain regional differences. A reverse flow of selective migration from rural to urban areas causes greater regional inequalities.
- Successful growing areas attract more economic activity causing even greater disparity. This economic concentration in core areas is called backwash or polarisation. The core has a cumulative & growing advantage over the periphery. These areas can use economies of scale, better technology etc.
- Some areas will have upward spirals & some will have downward spirals due to the multiplier effect.
- Growth will slowly spread to periphery areas as greater food & the core needs resources.
- Land prices in the core rise & so some companies will decentralise to the periphery.
The gap between core & periphery depends on the relative rates of backwash & spread. If backwash dominates there is an increasing gap; if spread dominates there is a decreasing gap.
Other Development revision notes for this module at A Level:
- Development Processes
- Sustainable Development
- Models of Development
- Issues of Finance
- Regional Inequalities