- This is the distribution of different functions in a city
The Bid-rent Theory
- The Bid Rent Theory suggests different functions will bid differently for land in various parts of the city.
- It suggests the more accessible the site of land, the higher is its value.
Bid Rent Theory Diagram needed.
Factors Influencing Land Values
- Proximity to a secondary shopping center.
- Local Site Characteristics
- Government Policy
Functional Zones Within a City
- The CBD is the central, most accessible, most expensive part of a city
- The Inner City is the area immediately surrounding the CBD. It has adverse social and economic conditions
- The Industrial Zone
- The Residential Zones. These are divided in 3 groups:
- Low Income: 1st generation immigrants and poorer groups.
- Middle Income: 2nd generation immigrants, and wealthier groups.
- High Class Residential: The wealthiest groups
The Models of Urban Structure
- There are three basic models of urban structure
The Burgess Concentric Model
- Burgess developed his model in 1924 based on a study of Chicago city
- He arranged the zones in concentric circles around the CBD as shown in the diagram.
- Land Values Decrease outward from the CBD.
Burgess Concentric Model Diagram needed.
Hoyts Sector Model
- Homer Hoyt proposed The model in 1939
- It was based on a study of 142 American cities
- It arranges the zones in sectors radiating from the CBD
Hoyt's Sector Model Diagram needed.
Peter Mann's Model of a Typical British City
- Peter Mann took Hoyt's and Burgess's models and combined them in his model of a typical British City in 1965.
- He based his model on studies of Sheffield, Nottingham and Huddersfield.
- The Multi-Nuclei Theory
- This theory was proposed by Ullmann and Harris in 1945.
- It suggests that a city may have more than one nuclei/center apart from the CBD from which zones develop as shown in the diagram.
Multi Nuclei Theory Diagram
The Urban Field
- The Urban field is the region economically and socially linked to a city.
- It is also referred to as
- Urban Regions:The commuter villages/communities dependent on large towns
- Functional Regions:The regions to/from which a city exports and imports.
- Hinterland:The area served by a seaport