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Robinson and Berridge
Incentive sensitisation theory, repeated exposure to drugs of abuse leads to increasing sensitivity of the brain to their desirability which can persist even in absence of continued exposure to the drug
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Caine et al
Mice with D1 receptors actively chose cocaine water
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Koob and Kreek
Drug levels needed to trigger reward systems increase due to addiction
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Volkow et al
Gave Ritalin which is knows to lift dopamine levels to volunteers some loved it some hated it. Brain scans showed those who likes it had less dopamine receptors
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People think smoking treats stress as it temporarily alleviates withdrawal symptoms but chronic effect increases stress
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Among alcoholics treat as outpatients strongest predictor of relapse was lack of coping skills
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Found that rise in middle class alcoholism was ultimately driven by stress
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Expectancy theory. Drug and alcohol use becomes addiction die to expectation of cost and behaviour
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Among heavy alcoholics drinking shown to be associated with spica and physical pleasure, tension reduction, greater sociability and enhanced cognitive and motor functioning
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Tate et al
Told smoker not to expect negative experiences during abstinence periods and they didn't. told them to and they did. Role of cognition
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Becker and murphy
Proposed economic model based on rational choices and concept of utility
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Gamblers believed they were skilful, likely to make irrational verbalisations. Tended to treat machine as person. explain loss as near win to justify continuati
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Sheer et al
Men more positive expectations of alcohol than women
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Increase activity in areas of frontal cortex associated with decision making in times of craving. Link between cognition and biology
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Noble et al
Found A1 variant of DRD2 gene present in over 1/3 of deceased alcoholics. Had significantly fewer dopamine receptors in pleaser centres of brain
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Comings et al
Increased incidence of A1 variant in smokers. Among this groups 41.7% carried A1 compared to 25.9% of general population
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First degree relatives more likely to inherit gambling behaviur
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Rice et al
Association between DRD2 and smoking
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Approach avoidance conflict. Motivation fluctuates between wanting to use and wanting to quit
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Flay et al
Friends' smoking affects adolescents directly and indirectly but parents smoking only directly
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Among adults those who smoke more frequently have less confidence in ability to abstain
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Pictures of hypodermic needles created positive feelings in addicts
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Robins et al
Us war veterans (Vietnam) addicted to heroin whilst there less likely to relapse than civilians retuning to same environment
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Release if dopamine can be produced by natural reinforcers such as food drink and sexual contact or addictive drugs
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Gamblers may become addicted because of physiological reward, psychological reward, social reward and financial reward
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Robins and Berridge
Although many peope take potentially addictive drugs only a few become addicted
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In peer groups message conveyed appears to be that smoking is enjoyable and promotes popularity
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States that those who see smoking associated with popularity come from backgrounds that approve of smokin and where smokin is common
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Fidler et al
Smoking in uk associated with social and economic disadvantage
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Positive predictive relationship between smokin at 16 and popularity 2 years later
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Black et al
First degree relatives more likely to be sufferers of addiction than distant relatives
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Shah et al
Adult twins. Found evidence of genetic transmission of gambling in MEN
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Relationship between sensation seekers and gambling. Entertain risk of loss for positive reinforcement of high arousal during periods of uncertainty and positive arousal if win
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Blaszczynski et al
Pathological gamblers had significant higher proneness to boredom than a control group
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Data from 872 boys over 9 years. Low self esteem at 11 were at high risk of addict ok especially to drugs at 20
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Abrams and Hogg
Group members adopt attitudes/behaviour dental to group social identity
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Young girls increasingly addicted to social network sites. 'Friendship addiction'
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Stress in early life evens during prenatal period can increase vulnerability to drugs
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Manh people took up smokin durin due to stress and easily have up after so did soldiers
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Rats self administered more cocaine if stressd
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Believes 3 personality traits are passed on: neuroticism, psychoticism and extra version
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Link between addiction and high score on neuroticism and psychoticism
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Addition used in everyday language but no universal meaning. Media are rich source of lay belief about use and misuse of substances
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Collected scenes from films. Scenes about drugs represented scenes of competence and enjoyment of effects in contrast to diullnes of everyday life
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Viewing cigarette adverts made children associated smoking with being grown up and confident
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Social media in itself is addictive
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SMA increasing problem in work. Workers wanting to access social media sites during work hours. Can affect performance at work
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Argue that films do sometimes show negative consequence of dependence
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Webb et al
Analysed 85 studies finding that those interventions based on theoretical models ex specially TPB tended to have greater succes
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Major et al
Encouraging addicts belief in ability to abstain related to optimism and positive outcome
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Netemeyer et al
Control contributed little to prediction of intentions to consume convenience food but important in prediction of inention of weight loss
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Rise et al
Behavioural attitude and descriptive norms play crucial role than other aspects of TPB In predicting wether smokers would relapse
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Ajzen and fishbein
Theory of reasoned action TRA
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Theory of planned behvsoir TPB
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Russell et al
5% told to stop smokin by doctor did
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Raise piece of cigarettes decrease attraction
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Information centre for health and social care
250,000 wuit smoking 2007 using local NHS quit line services
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Sylvain et al
Evaluated effectiveness of CBT in sample of pathological gamblers finding significant improvement which was maintained at one year follow up
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Sindelar et al
Randomly allocated to non reward and reward. Reward 60% higher chance of negative trace in urine in reward
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Blanco et al
32 gamblers over six months SSRI not superior to placebo
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Hollander et al
10 patients 16 weeks SSRI superior compared to control
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UK Statistics authority
Methadone responsible for death of over 300 people in uk 2007
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Stead et al
Meta analysis including over 18,000 participants found that those who received repeated phone calls from councillor had 50% higher chance of stopping compared to control who didn't
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Mice with D1 receptors actively chose cocaine water


Caine et al

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Drug levels needed to trigger reward systems increase due to addiction


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Gave Ritalin which is knows to lift dopamine levels to volunteers some loved it some hated it. Brain scans showed those who likes it had less dopamine receptors


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People think smoking treats stress as it temporarily alleviates withdrawal symptoms but chronic effect increases stress


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