Additional Science: Biology


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What are the feautures of an animal cell?
cell membrane, Nucleus, cytoplasm and Mitochondria
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What are the features of a plant cell?
Same as animal and cell wall, central Vacule, chlorplasts.
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What is the cell membrane?
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
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What is the Nucleous?
A large structure that contains DNA. It gives instructions fort he building and working of the cell.
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What is the cytoplasm?
Jelly-like substance that fills the cell, many reactions take place here.
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What are mitochondria?
(single) - tiny structures where respiration takes place realeasing energy for the cell processes.
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How do plants stand up right?
The plant is supported by the cell wall around each cell and the vaculoe in each cell when it is full.
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Why dont all plant cells have Chloroplasts?
Not all plant cels photosynethsis. Cells that dont photosynethis dont need chloroplasts.
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Bacterial cell organelle
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, NO NUCLEOUS, flagellum, cell wall
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What is a Flaggellum?
They help the cell to move
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Uses light to magnify objects. The greatest possible magnification in about X2000
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Uses electrons to veiw the object. X10million. You can see far more detail with this then a light microscope.
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Compare the structure and functions of two types of DNA in bacteria.
Chromosomal DNA forms a long loo[ that lies free in the cytoplasm and contains most of the genes. Plasmid DNA forms small circles of DNA in the cytoplasm, which carrys additional genes.
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What is a Chromosme?
A cromosone constsis of a string of DNA.
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What is a gene?
A gene is a short peice of DNA that codes for a specific PROEIN.
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What do you have genes for?
Hair structure, eye colour, enzymes and every other protein in your body
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What shape does DNA form
Double Helix
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What are the bases? (letters and names)
A= Adenine T=Thymine C=Cytosine G=Guamine
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What are the pairs?
A and T C and G
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what holds the bases together?
weak hydrogen bonds
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Describe the structure of DNA
DNA forms a double helix structure which consists of two strands coiled together and held together by weak hydrogen bonds they link in base pairs of A and T or C and G
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Who were Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Frankilin?
They studied the structure of DNA and X-Rays
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What else did Franklin do?
She studied x-Ray photographs of DNA to work out how the atoms grouped together
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What did James Watson and Francis Crick do?
They interpreted data from other scientists in their study of DNA structure. Franklins photographs were the final clue that helped them build the double helix structure.
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What is the Human Genome Project?
Scientists from 18 differnet counrties collabrated to decode the HUMAN GENOME. This is the order of bases on all human chrosomes. The work was published in 2003 so that scientiats can use the information to develop new medicines and technigues.
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What is Genetic engineering?
It is were they take one organism and insert it into the DNA of another organism. The inserted gene then makes its protein in the GENTICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM.
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What are the steps for genetic engineering?
1. a gene is cut out of a human chromosome using enzymes 2. A dna plasmid is taken out ofb a bacterium and cut open by using enzymes 3. the human insulin gene and the plasmid are mixed together 4. the human insulin gene and the plasmid are stuck tut
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What are the advantages of genetic engineering?
Making human insulin using GM bacteria is quicker and cheaper then producing it any other way. This means more people with diabetes will be treated.
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What does 'golden rice' do?
'Golden Rice' is a GM plant that contains genes from other plants that increases the production of beta-carotene. Beta-Carotene makes Vitamin A. It could prevent illness caused by lack of vitamin A in people who mainly eat rice.
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What are the disadvantages of GM?
A few diabetic people react badlery to this insulin and need a differnt form. Golden rice costs more than normal rice seed, so the poorest people can't affored to grow it.
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What are the advantages of growing GM crops?
Only the weed plants will die, so the crop plants will have more room to grow. This should increase the crop yield.
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What are the disavantages of growing GM crops?
If the gene for the herbicide restiance passes to weed plants, the weeds will no longer be killed by the herbicide. So the cost of making GM crop plants will be wasted. Also, overuse of herbicidies can reduce biodiversity.
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Describe what is meant by a gentically modified organism
An organism that has a gene inserted into its DNA that comes from another organism.
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What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the cell division that happens in body cells. A body cell is any cell except those that produce gametes (sex cells)
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What are the three things to remember about Mitosis?
1. Mi-to-sis makes TWO cells 2. Mitosis makes identical cells 3. diploid means double
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What are the cells called (before and after)?
Before: Parent Cell After: Daughter Cell
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What are the stages of Mitosis?
The parent cell is a diploid cell. This means it has two sets of chromosomes. Before the parent cell divides, each chromosome is copied exactly. When the cell divides in two, each cell gets one copy of each chromosme these are the daughter cells
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Name three situations where Mitosis is used to prduce new cells.
1. growth 2. Repairing damaged parts of the body 3. asexual reproduction
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What is Asexual reproduction?
This is the production of new organsims without fertilisation, such as when: the bacteria split in two to make more bacteria or plants make new platlets that split off from the parent plan to grow on their own.
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What is sexual reproduction?
When a male gamete combineds with a female gamete (sex cell) to produce a zygote
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What is a haploid?
it is when cells only have 1 set of chromosomes.
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What is meiosis?
Meioisis is the second type of cell divion. It is when a diploid cell divides to produce haploid gametes (sex cell such as sperm and egg cells)
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WHat type of reproduction is cloning?
cloning is Asexual reporduction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the features of a plant cell?


Same as animal and cell wall, central Vacule, chlorplasts.

Card 3


What is the cell membrane?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the Nucleous?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the cytoplasm?


Preview of the front of card 5
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