Animal Biology: Insects

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Insects are found in the following habitats...
Terrestrial, Aquatic, Parasitic
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What can parasitic insects be used for?
many have endoparsitic larvae, sucessfully used control e.g. aphids
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What is the most common life cycle length? What are the shortest?
1 year, 2 weeks
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What is a periodic circadas?
e.g. every 13 or 17 years emergence, dont overlap, prime numbers
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What are the different types of mouthpart?
biting, filter feeding, chewing, sucking
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Sociality of Insects: Gregorious
act individually but aggregate in groups
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Sociality of Insects: Sub Social
parent and offspring e.g. wasps and bees
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Sociality of Insects: Highly Social
complex system e.g. ants, bees, termintes
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What are some reasons for sucess of insects?
exoskeleton, long history, adaptibility, sociality, metamorphosis, small size, short generation
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What are the common strutural features of insects anatomy? (3)
head (pair antennae and mandibles), thorax (3 pairs legs, 2 pairs wings), Abdomen (no locomotailty)
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Outline Kingdom, Phylum, Class of Insects..
Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta
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What is the Class Insecta Split into?
1) Apterygota (without wings) 2) Pterygota (with wings)
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Pterygota subdivided into...
1) Exopterygota(Hemimetabola)- wings develop externally 2) Endopterygota (Holometabola) wings develop internally
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How many orders in Insecta? and which are class are they in
4 Apterygota 25 Pterygota
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Features of Apterygote
No wings, Metamorphosis slight or absent (young effectivly mini adults), contains order Thysanura
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Features of Pterygote
Winged, metamorphosism occurs, contains all important orders
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Exopterygota (Hemimetabola)- Features
simple metamorphism, immobile stage nymphs, pupa rare, wings develop externally
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Endopterygote (Holometabola)- Features
complex metamorphosis, mature stage larvae, pupa present, wings develop internally, e.g. flies, butterflies, moths
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Insects need to be WHAT during sexual reproduction?
Synchronised
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How do insects synchronise?
overt displys (e.g. fireflies), attraction to resource (e.g. food), Pheromones, Swarms (mostly male)
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Asexual Reproduction- Parthenogenesis?
devlopment of unfertalised egg, can be obligatory or facilitative, exploiting favourable conditions
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Types of Parental Care: Oviparity?
egg laying
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Types of Parental Care: Ovoviviparity?
egg + yolk- laid-hatch
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Types of Parental Care: Pseudoplacental Viviparity?
Embryo (placenta fed)
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Types of Parental Care: Hemocetus Viviparity?
embryo in hemolymph
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Types of Parental Care: Adenotrophic Viviparity?
larva hatches in female and milk fed- laid- pupation
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Phenology (Relation To Insects)
periodic animal life cycle events, effected by temerature e.g. bees in spring, photoperiod.. day lengths, long day spring summer, short day autumn winter
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Strategies to deal with Phenology
Polymorphism: long day- viviparious pathogenic females, short days- males + oviparity. Migration: hibernation sites decreasing day length-south, increasing north Dormancy: e.g. insect diapause
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Card 2

Front

What can parasitic insects be used for?

Back

many have endoparsitic larvae, sucessfully used control e.g. aphids

Card 3

Front

What is the most common life cycle length? What are the shortest?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a periodic circadas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the different types of mouthpart?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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