animal tissues

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tissue
group of simialr cells working together to perform a specific function or set of functions.
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4 main tissue types
epithelial (or lining tissue), connective (hold structures together and provide support eg bone blood cartilage), muscle (made of specialised cells to contract and cause movement), nervous (made of specialised cells to conduct electrical impulses)
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epithelial tissue
covers and lines free surfaces of the body eg) skin, blood vessels, heart chambers and organ walls.
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characteristics of epithelial tissue
made up almost entirely of cells. the cells are very closer together and form continuous sheets. Adjacent cells are bound together by lateral contacts.
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characteristics of epithelial tissue
no blood vessels within the epithelial tissue; the cells receive nutrients by diffusion from tissue fluid in the underlying connective tissue.
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characteristics of epithelial tissue
some epithelial cells have smooth surfaces, but some have either cilia or microvilli projections.
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characteristics of epithelial tissue
epitheial cells have short cell cycles and divide up to 2 or 3 times a day to replace worn or damged tissue.
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characteristics of epithelial tissue
specialised to carry out its functions of projection, absorption, filtration, excretion and secretion.
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microvilli
extensions of the plasma membrane to increases its SA
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cilia
hair-like projections, some of which beat and propel substances along the epithelial surfaces.
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connective tissue
widely distributed in the body, consisting of non-living extracellular matrix containing proteins (collagen and elastin) and polysaccharides. eg) bone blood cartilage tendons and ligaments. skin also contains connective tissue.
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matrix
this matrix seperates the living cells within the tissue and enables it to withstand forces such as weight.
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cartilage
they can divide by mitosis and secrete the extracellular matrix. once the matrix has been synthesised, the chondroblasts become mature and less active chondrocytes which maintains the matrix.
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chondrblasts
immature cells in cartilage
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3 types of cartilage
hyaline, fibrous, elastic
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Hyaline cartilage
forms the mebryonic skeleton, covers the ends of long bones in adults, joins ribs to the sternum, found in the nose.
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fibrous cartilage
occurs in discs between the vertebrae in the spine and knee joint.
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elastic cartilage
makes up th outer ear (pinna) and the epiglottis.
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muscle tissue
it has many blood vessels. Muscle cells are called fibres; they are elonated and contain special organelles called myofilaments made of the proteins actin and myosin. The myofilaments allow the muscles to contract.
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muscle tissues allow movemnt, there are 3 types:
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
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skeletal muscles (voluntary)
packaged by connective tissue sheets, joined to bones by tendons. when these muscles contract, the bones move. Elongated, fast to fatigue, voluntary, striated, glucose and fatty acids
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cardiac muscles
makes up the walls of the heart and allows the heart to beat and pump blood. Branched fibres, doesn't fatigue, striated, fatty acids.
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smooth muscle (involunatry)
occurs in the walls of the intenstines, blood vessels, uterus and urinary tracts (propels substances along the tracts). Spindle shaped, slow to fatigue, unstriated,fatty acid.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

epithelial (or lining tissue), connective (hold structures together and provide support eg bone blood cartilage), muscle (made of specialised cells to contract and cause movement), nervous (made of specialised cells to conduct electrical impulses)

Back

4 main tissue types

Card 3

Front

covers and lines free surfaces of the body eg) skin, blood vessels, heart chambers and organ walls.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

made up almost entirely of cells. the cells are very closer together and form continuous sheets. Adjacent cells are bound together by lateral contacts.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

no blood vessels within the epithelial tissue; the cells receive nutrients by diffusion from tissue fluid in the underlying connective tissue.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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