Attachment Psychology AQA

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Caregiver-Infant interactions in humans
Reciprocity and Interactional synchrony
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New born babies have alert phases
From birth, babies and their mothers spend time in pleasurable and intense interaction. They have 'alert phases' and signal the are ready for interaction. to which mothers respond 2/3s of the time
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Interactional synchrony = mirroring
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Interactional synchrony at two weeks old
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High synchrony = higher quality attachment
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Baby is active
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A limitation is that it is hard to know what is happening when observing infants
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a strength of the research is that it uses well controlled procedures
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However, observations don't tell us the purpose of synchrony and reciprocity
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a limitation is research into mother-infant interactions is socially sensitive
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the role of the father
the role of the father
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primary attachment usually with mothers but sometimes both
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75% eventually form secondary attachments
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attachment with mother mot related to teen attachments
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Fathers play is more important
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fathers can be primary caregivers
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level of response is most important
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a limitation is researchers are interested in different research qualities
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a limitation is the evidence undermines the idea of fathers have distinct roles
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research fails to provide a clear answer about fathers and primary attachments
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a further limitation is that social biases prevent objective observation
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Schaffer's stages of attachment
Stages of attachment is identifies by Schaffer. Multiple attachments
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What are the 4 stages of attachment?
Asocial stage (First few weeks), Indiscriminate attachment (2-7 months), Specific attachment (from around 7 months), Multiple attachments (by one year)
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Asocial stage (First few weeks)
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Indiscriminate attachment (2-7 months)
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Specific attachment (from around 7 months)
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Multiple attachments (by one year)
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Who studied Stages of attachment?
Schaffer and Emerson 1964
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Schaffer and Emersons procedure
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Schaffer and Emersons findings
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Schaffer and Emersons conclusions
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a strength of Schaffer and Emerson' study is that it has external validity
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another strength of the study is that it was carried out longitudinally
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there may also be a problem with how multiple attachment is assessed
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a broader limitation is that there is a problem in studying the asocial year
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Animal studies of attachment
Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow
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Who studied imprinting?
Lorenz 1952
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Lorenz procedure
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Lorenz findings
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Lorenz conclusions
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one limitation is generalising findings and conclusions from birds to humans
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a strength is support for the concept of imprinting
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Some of Lorenz's observations and conclusions have been questioned
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Who studied the importance of contact comfort?
Harlow 1958
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Harlow's procedure
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Harlow's findings
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Harlow's conclusions
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A strength is that Harlow's research has important practical applications
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Harlow faced severe criticism for the ethics of his research
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A limitation is generalising from monkeys to humans
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Explanations of attachment: learning theory
Explanations of attachment: learning theory
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Who studies learning theory of attachment?
Dollard and Miller 1950
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Importance of food
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Role of classical conditioning
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Baby learns that mother produces a sense of pleasure
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Role of operant conditioning
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Negative reinforcement
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Drive reduction
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Animal studies provide evidence against food as the basis of attachment
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Human research also show that feeding is not an important factor
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A limitation is that learning theory ignores other factors linked with attachment
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a strength is that some elements of conditioning could still be involved
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Explanations of attachment: Bowlby's theory
Explanations of attachment: Bowlby's theory. The concepts of a critical
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From birth, babies and their mothers spend time in pleasurable and intense interaction. They have 'alert phases' and signal the are ready for interaction. to which mothers respond 2/3s of the time

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New born babies have alert phases

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