Attachments

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: EmiLy1703
  • Created on: 18-08-17 16:07
What is an attachment?
An enduring, two way emotional bond to a specific other person; normally between a parent and child
1 of 29
How do babies develop an attachment?
Interactions between a carer and an infant serve to develop and maintain an attachment between them
2 of 29
Who conducted a study to find out more about how attachments develop?
Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
3 of 29
What are the 4 stages of attachment?
Asocial stage, indiscriminate attachment, specific attachment and multiple attachments
4 of 29
When does asocial stage occur?
First few weeks
5 of 29
When does indiscriminate attachment occur?
From 2-7 months
6 of 29
When does specific attachment occur?
From 7 months onwards
7 of 29
Describe on way in which psychologists have investigate caregiver-infant inreaction in humans. Refer to a specific study
Condon et al did a video recording of the interactions between caregiver and infant to see where and when each interaction happens
8 of 29
Name two studies of animal research into attachments
Lorenz (early 20th century) and Harlow (1958)
9 of 29
Explain Lorenz's study
Divided goose eggs into two groups, one with him, the other with their mother. Goslings who saw him first followed him rather than their mother, even when mixed with the others who saw the mother first, innately programmed to imprint the 1st thing
10 of 29
Explain Harlow's study
Groups of monkeys were either given milk from a wire mother with a cloth or a plain wire mother. The monkeys cuddled the soft object in preference to the wire one regardless of which one dispensed milk showing contact comfort was more important
11 of 29
Describre Ainsworth's Strange Situation (1978)
Developed a lab test to assess the attachment between an infant and its mother. Involves a sequence of episodes where the mother, child and stranger engage in a series of introductions, separations and reunions. The observers note down behaviour
12 of 29
What are the three main types of attachments between children and their mothers?
Secure attachment, insecure resistant attachment and insecure avoidant attachment
13 of 29
What were the four types of behaviour observed of the infant?
Willingness to explore, unease when the mother leaves the room (separation protest), response to stranger (stranger anxiety) and response to mother on return to the room (reunion behaviour)
14 of 29
What is meant by the term culture?
Identifiable groups of people bound together by attitudes, values and customs
15 of 29
What is an individualist culture?
A culture which emphasises personal independence and achievement at the expense of group goals, resulting in a strong sense of competition
16 of 29
What is a collectivist culture?
A culture which emphasises family and work goals above individual needs and desires, there is a high degree of interdependence between people
17 of 29
What does innate and adaptive mean?
Through evolution infants become genetically programmed to behave towards their mothers in ways that increased their survival chances. These are known as social releasers such as crying, following and clinging
18 of 29
What is the critical period?
A specific time period within which an attachment must form. Attachment behaviours between infant and carer must occur within a certain time period if children are to form attachments
19 of 29
What does monotropy mean?
An innate tendeny to become attached to one particular adult
20 of 29
What is the internal working model?
A cognitive framework used to understand the world, self and others, that acts as a template for future relationships based on an infants primary attachment
21 of 29
What is deprivation?
This is when a child has formed an attachment but then it is lost due to either short term or long term separation e.g. parents getting divorced (LT) or going to school or nursery (ST)
22 of 29
What is privation?
This is when a child has never had the opportunity to form an attachment e.g. brought up in an orphanage
23 of 29
What is the maternal deprivation hypothesis?
If an infant is unable to develop a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with their mother then the child would have difficulties later in life
24 of 29
What are the disturbances if maternal deprivation happens?
Affectionless psychopathy, anaclitic depression, dependency anxiety, dwarfism and intellectual retardation
25 of 29
What is the continuity hypothesis?
There is consistency between early emotional experiences and later relationships
26 of 29
Explain the research into romantic relationships by Hazan and Shaver
Analysed 620 replies to a 'love quiz' printed in an American local newspaper. The quiz was split into three sections; assesing respondents current or most important relationship, general love experiences and attachment type
27 of 29
Explain the research into later childhood relationships by Myron-Wilson and Smith
Assessed attachment type and bullying involvment using standard questionnaires in 196 children aged 7-11 from London
28 of 29
Explain the research into parent child relationships by Bailey et al
Assessed 99 mothers with one year old babies on the quality of their attachment to their own mothers using a standard interview procedure
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do babies develop an attachment?

Back

Interactions between a carer and an infant serve to develop and maintain an attachment between them

Card 3

Front

Who conducted a study to find out more about how attachments develop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 4 stages of attachment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When does asocial stage occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »