Biology

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  • Created by: tklmn
  • Created on: 23-04-20 11:00
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making temporary mounts
add a drop of water on slide, take thin section of plant tissue and place on slide, add drop of iodine stain, lower cover slip using mounted needle, produce labelled biological drawing
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homogenisation
breaking up cell membrane to release the organelles
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ultracentrifugation
separating organelles
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cell fractionation (CF)
homogenise, filter, ultracentrifuge to create a pellet (most dense) and supernatent, increasing the speed
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cold (CF)
slows enzymes, so organelles aren't hydrolysed
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isotonic (CF)
same water potential so water doesn't move out by osmosis
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Buffered (CF)
same pH so organelles don't burst or shrivel
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cell differentiation
unspecialised cell differentiate to become specialised for a specific function
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prokaryotic cells vs eukaryotic cells
PC = smaller, no membrane bound organelles, no nucleus, cell wall containing murein
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replication of bacteria
binary fission - circular DNA and plasmids replicate, cytoplasm then divides, 2 daughter cells produce with a single copy of circular DNA
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mitosis
produces genetically identical daughter cells, asexual, for growth and repair
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interphase
DNA replicates
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prophase
Chromosomes condense and become visible, nuclear envelope breaks down, centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell and spindle fibres form
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metaphase
.chromosomes line up at equator and attach to spindle fibres
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anaphase
chromatids move to separate poles as spindle fibres pull them
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telophase
cytoplasm splits in 2 forming 2 new cells
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simple diffusion
the net movement of substances from a high conc to a low conc - small, lipid-soluble, non-polar, non-charged substances
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facilitated diffusion
high to low conc through carrier/channel proteins - large, polar, water-soluble, charged substances
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active transport
net movement of substances from a low to high conc through carrier proteins and requires energy
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osmosis
net movement of water from high to low water potential through a partially permeable membrane
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movement in lumen
sodium ions move from epithelial cell in lumen via active transport creating a low conc of Na+ in epithelial cell, glucose and Na+ move from lumen to epithelial cell via co transport, glucose move to blood in capillary via facilitated diffusion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

add a drop of water on slide, take thin section of plant tissue and place on slide, add drop of iodine stain, lower cover slip using mounted needle, produce labelled biological drawing

Back

making temporary mounts

Card 3

Front

breaking up cell membrane to release the organelles

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

separating organelles

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

homogenise, filter, ultracentrifuge to create a pellet (most dense) and supernatent, increasing the speed

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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