biopsych ; biological rhythms ; circadian rhythms

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- biological rhythms
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all biological rhythms governed by which two things (technical names plz)?
endogenous pacemakers / exogenous zeitgebers
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what are endogenous pacemakers?
body's internal biological clocks
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and exogenous zeitgebers?
external changes in the environment
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what are rhythms that occur many times a day called?
ultradian rhythms
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and others longer than a day
infradian rhythyms
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and extra long?
circannual rhythms
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what are circadian rhythms?
those that last around 24hrs
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- sleep/wake cycle
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what demonstrates the effect of daylight as an exogenous zeitgeber?
drowsy @ night + awake in day
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what is free-running?
when bio clock left to own devices w/o external stimuli
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- siffre cave study
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when did siffre go into a cave of the southern alps w/o access to natural light and sound?
july '62
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and he resurfaced when?
mid-september '62
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and believed it to be?
mid-august '62
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a decade later he performed a similar feat for how long in a texan cave?
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in each case his free running bio rhythm settled down to one @ how many hrs?
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- aschoff + wever
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convinced a group of pps to spend 4weeks where?
wwii bunker w/ no natural light
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all but one displayed circadian rhythm between?
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what does this combined with siffre sugg about natural cycle?
may be slightly longer than 24hrs
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despite this we shouldn't oversetimate influence of?
environmetnal cues
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- folard et al
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studied how many ppl?
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who agreed to live in a dark cave for?
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retiring to bed when clock said?
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and waking up at?
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over course of study what did rsrchrs gradually do?
speed up clock
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so apparent 24hr day only lasted?
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revealed how many pps able to adjust comfortably?
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suggests existence of what?
strong free-running circadian rhythm
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:) practical application to shift work
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given rsrchers better understanding of conseq of circadian rhythm disrputipon known as?
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for example night shift workers experience period of reduced concentration whn?
around 6
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which makes what more likely?
mistakes / accidents
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thus rsrch into sleep/wake may have economic implications how?
how best to manage worker productivity
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:) practical application to drug treatment
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what is pharmokinetics?
action of drugs on body and how well absorbed / distributed
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rsrch into circadian rhythms have revealed peak times where?
drugs more likely to be most effective
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this led to development of guidelines to do with?
timing of drug dosing
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:( use of case studies / small samples
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people may not be representative of?
wider population
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and this limits the extent to which?
meaningful generalisations can be made
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what did siffre observe in his most recent cave study @ 60 than before?
internal clock ticked much slower
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this illustrates fact that even when same person involved what?
factors that vary which may prevent nomothetic approach
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:( poor control in studies
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pps deprived of light but?
still access to artificial light
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for instance what did siffre do?
turn on lamp when he woke up which remained on until he went to sleep
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what did he and others assume about this artificial light?
no effect on free running rhythm
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but what was czeisler able to do by using dim lighting?
adjust pp circ rhythms from 22 to 28hrs
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as such use of light may be what?
confounding variable
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like taking a drug that resets bio clock
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:( individual differences
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what is a problem with generalising findings?
erry1 got ifferent sleep wake cycle
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what are the two extremes?
13-65 hrs
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duffy et al revealed some ppl display natural preference as larks who?
go to bed early and wake early
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whereas who do opposide?
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also what kind of difference in cucles?
age difference
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- biological rhythms



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all biological rhythms governed by which two things (technical names plz)?


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what are endogenous pacemakers?


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and exogenous zeitgebers?


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