British 1906-57 timeline

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What did the Liberals do in 1906?
Implemented state pensions, unemployment relief, beginnings of state-provided welfare
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What growing unrest under the Liberal government developed before the war?
Ireland, women's suffrage, trade unions
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Why wasn't David Lloyd George popular with a lot of Liberals?
Too close to Conservatives, campaigned against the Liberals who opposed him
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What did the Labour party evolve from?
Labour Representation Committee of the Trade Union Congress
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How many members and MP's did Labour have in 1906? How many MP's did Labour have in 1911?
1 million members, 29 MP's 40 MP's
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What did the Liberal government do in 1911 that allowed the working class to be MP's?
Allowed wages for MP's helped Labour Party
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What was the Representation of the People Act?
1918 Women aged 30+ could vote, all men aged 21+ could vote
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What percentage of all adults voted in the 1910 elections? What percentage of all adults voted in the 1918 elections?
30% 78%
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What was 1924 Housing (Financial Provisions) Act?
Increased money for local authorities to build houses for workers
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What did the 1927 amendment to the 1906 Trade Disputes Act do? (to damage Labour)
Stopped political levy being from trade unions being passed on to Labour - labour MPs weren't being paid, and labour had no funding
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What did the 1930 Coal Mines Act aim for?
Better pay for workers
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How much government funding was given under the Unemployment Insurance Act? (gave government power to use public work to tackle unemployment)
£25 million
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What percentage of unemployment assistance did the government propose to cut after the pound dropped in 1931?
10% cut to unemployment assistance
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What amount of trade with the Allies was there in 1914? What amount of trade with the Allies was there in 1916?
$825 million $3.2 billion
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What percentage of of British Merchant Shipping did the German U-boat sink?
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When did Britain abandon the Gold Standard?
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What percentage had inflation increased to by 1918?
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When was the Ministry of Reconstruction set up?
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When was the Government of Ireland Act?
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How many new houses did the Addison Act aim to build?
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What percentage of the working adult population was unemployed in 1920?
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How much did the government cut spending by 1918-1920? (%)
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How much was cut in the 1922-1923 'Geddes Axe' budget?
£87 million
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How many strikes were there in 1917 involving how many workers?
48 strikes involving 200,000 workers
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When did the 1921 miners strike begin, and when did it end?
15th April 1921 28th June 1921
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Why did the National Transport Workers Federation and the National Union of Railwaymen pull out of the 1921 miners strike?
They weren't allowed to be part of negotiations
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Why couldn't the miners beat the mine owners in the 1921 miners strike after the railwaymen and dock workers withdrew their support?
Coal could still be imported
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When did miners go on strike in 1926? Which 1926 government enquiry into miners pay suggested a 13.5% pay cut?
Samuel Commission
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What did the new 1927 Trades Disputes Act stop?
Sympathetic striking and mass picketing
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What year did Hitler start breaking the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Which area did Hitler re-arm in 1936 in direct rebellion to the Treaty of Versailles?
1935 Rhineland
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What was the name of the American divorcee with which King Edward VIII had an affair in 1937?
Mrs Wallace Simpson
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What was the Special Areas Act?
1934 Funding given to areas that need special assistance
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How many families lived in poor housing in the 1930s? How many houses were built in the 1930s?
1 million 3 million
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How many men had been called up to service by 1945?
5.5 million
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What were Essential Work Orders?
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Which agreement gave Britain credit to buy supplies from America during WW2?
Lend-Lease Agreement; it was a credit agreement, where debts would be paid after the war
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What did John Maynard Keynes want to do?
Wanted to give Britain a loan that they didn't have to pay back
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What was the name of the men selected and conscripted to do mining during WW2 instead of fighting?
The 'Bevin Boys'
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What year did the Suez crisis take place? When did British troops agree to leave the Suez Canal in Egypt?
1956 18th June 1956
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When did Churchill make his 'Iron Curtain' speech? what was it?
1946 Churchill announced symbolic divide between Europe between communist and non-communist countries
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What does CND stand for?
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
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How much of Britain's spending in the 1960s went on maintaining military presence overseas? (fraction)
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what was The Unemployment Act?
1934 made national Unemployment Assistance Boards to help people who weren't entitled to insurance benefits?
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what was the Widow's, Orphans', and Old Age Contributory Pensions Act?
provided benefits and pensions for widows, orphans and old people
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Who wrote the 1942 report into British society? What were the 5 social evils published in the 1942 Beveridge Report?
Beveridge Want, disease, ignorance, squalor, idleness
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What 5 things were proposed in the 1942 Beveridge Report?
National Insurance, the NHS, education, rehousing, and full employment
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What did the 1945 Family Allowances Act do?
1945 Gave mothers 5 shillings a week for every additional child after the first
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What did the 1946 National Insurance Act do?
1946 Gave money to pensions + benefits
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What did 1948 National Assistance Act do?
Set up the National Assistance Board
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When was the Holidays with Pay Act passed?
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What did the 1921 Education Act actually implement?
Raising the school leaving age to 14
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What did the 1944 Education Act do to secondary education?
Made it free + universally available Raising the school leaving age to 15 tripartite system (technical, secondary modern + grammar schools)
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what were 8 reasons for the landslide victory of the liberals in 1906?
1. Boer war, 2. Non-conformists + 1902 Education Act, 3. N-c.s +1904 Licensing Act, 3. N.-c.s + Chinese slavery, 5. 1902 Taff Vale Judgement, 6. 1903 imperial preference policy, 7. 1903 Lib-Lab Pact, 8. poverty was recognised
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what were the 1906+1907 Education Acts?
1906 provision of FSMs for poor children, but this wasn't compulsory, so only used by 1/2 of schools 1907 medical inspection compulsory, by 1914 3/4 did them, and 2/3provided some form of free treatment
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what was the 1909 Trade Boards Act do?
Boards set up to fix minimum wage + inspect working conditions; but only covered 'sweated trades' + inspections not rigorously enforced
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what was the 1911 National insurance act? (sickness)
workers, employers + state paid weekly into a fund, covered 13 mil people, included maternity + disability benefits and free medical care, but only covered certain age (16-60) and if earned certain amount
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what did some of these acts imply, in relation to politics?
showed shift away from laissez faire and to more expanded and extended gov't influence and intervention due to the basics and foundations of a welfare state
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what was the 1909 People's Budget?
1st constitutional crisis LGs budget angered tories with heavy taxation on rich, but the tory dominated HoL vetoed bill, breaking convention that HoL don't interfere in money bills, led to 1910 election
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what was the 1910 Parliament act? (wasn't passed until 1911)
2nd constitutional crisis meant HoL would have limited power, e.g., power couldn't amend/reject 'money bills' or any other legislation, could only delay them (no longer than 2 years)
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impact of the constitutional crisis?
liberals won the 1910 election, so the Parliament Act was passed 1911 as the Lords passed it to avoid a swamp of the creation of new Liberal peers made bu king George V - caused divisions in HoL and tory party, Balfour forced to resign 1911
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attitudes towards the female emancipation / suffrage movement
by 1900, traditional attitudes were gradually changing, however: PM C.B didn't fully support it, liberal reforms took up their parliamentary time, not all women supported it, not all men had the vote, and parties unsure of the impact
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what were the developments between 1906-1913 in the female movement?
190-gov't refuse to pass bill allowing female property owners to vote, 1907-HoC reject female suffrage bill, 1908-HoC pass one, but rejected by Asquith, 1910-300 suffragettes storm HoC (police brutality), 1913-Emily Davison goes under horse
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what happened in 1913 regarding the female movement?
1913-franchise bill -universal male suffrage, but declares female suffrage unconstitutional, 1913 Cat + Mouse act - released from prison when suffragette's hunger strike affected their health, gave time to recovery, then rearrested etc. 1000 suffragettes
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who did the Liberals depend on for support? what was the 1912 3rd Home Rule Bill?
Irish nationalists (favoured home rule) = ireland to have own parliament and make laws on Irish matters, but Britain to remain control over foreign policy, defence and trade.
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who politically opposed the Home rule and why?
conservatives they support Ulster unionists (n. Ireland remain part of uk) + opposed hr as would undermine British power status by breaking up UK and empire
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what did Edward Carson (leader of Ulster unionists) organise in 1912, 1913, and 1914?
1912 - drew up Ulster Covenant protesting agains 3rd HRB getting 1000s of signatures 1913- formed Ulster Volunteer Force (army) when HRB passed in HoC but delayed in HoL 1914 -smuggled 30,000 rifles and 3mil rounds of ammunition + Bonar Law supported him
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what was the 1914 Curragh mutiny?
curragh = army base in Ireland British soldiers and generals said they'd rather resign than force HR on Ulster
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what did the Irish Nationalists form?
they formed the Irish Volunteers milita to enforce HR, in 1914 they also smuggled rifles and ammunition, leading to fears of an Irish civil war
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what led to an Irish civil war being avoided?
the outbreak of ww1, the problem was suspended, but not solved
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what were the leading events of the Easter Rising 1916?
Irish (Redmond) and Ulster (Carson) leaders encouraged support for ww1, but many disagreed so broke away, numbering 10,000 by 1916 under MacNeill (Irish Nationalists)
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what were the events of the easter rising 1916?
in 1916, 1000 armed rebels seized the Dublin post office, and after 4 days the post office was destroyed and the fighting spread across the city with 450 dead and 2600 injured; hoped for support from German invasion or national uprising across ireland
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what were the results ?
appeared to be a total failure with only 1600 rebels, no wider support in Ireland and was condemned by Redmond + the Catholic Church.
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what were the actions of the British?
the British got 15 tried and shot, 3000+ suspected of involvement/support were arrested and 1800 imprisoned without trial in England. led to wave of anti-British rule revolution and growth of Sinn Fein, the shot rebels became martyrs
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what were the actions of Lloyd George?
LG negotiated with Redmond and Carson in the 'Heads of Agreement' to grant immediate HR for s. Ireland while Ulster remained part of UK, appeared to look temporary to Redmond and permanent to Carson
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how did support shift from Irish Nationalists to Sinn Fein?
support shifted after the rising and the undermining agreement, by 1917, had 250,000 members as British released rebels 1917 and extended conscription to Ireland 1918
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what was the set up like for the Sinn Fein and Irish volunteers?
s.F = political Irish volunteers (later the Irish republican army) = militant fighting. IRA tactics was murder + harassment of British soldiers, police and any civilians linked to them
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war of independence 1919-21
British gov't declared Sinn Fein and Dail Eireann (assembly of Ireland as independent) as illegal in 1919. LG made 'black + tans' with similar brutal terror attacks as IRA, led to spiral of 'terror+counter terror-, between 1919-21 1000 deaths
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where was there opposition to this?
international opposition and condemnation, e.g., from the US and the League of Nations. there was personal pleas Fromm King George V and Archbishop of Canterbury for a truce
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what was the anglo-irish treaty in 1921?
LG negotiated: Ireland become self-governing dominion of empire, 6 ulster counties part of UK, + British allowed to use Irish ports + naval bases during war. convinced SF that this was best + only option as if failed, he'd be forced to resign, replaced by
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what was the 1920 Gov't of Ireland act?
gave Belfast a parliament to govern the 6 ulster counties, opened in 1921
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what was the 1948 British Nationality act?
meant it was legal for anyone to enter the UK from British colonies, this meant that 250,000 immigrants from new commonwealth countries entered Britain from 1948, 75% male
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what is new commonwealth and old commonwealth immigration?
old = former British empire countries with a loose connection to Britain, e.g., Australia, Canada, New Zealand new = recently gained independence countries, e.g., India, Pakistan, West Indies
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what was the 1948 Empire Windrush boat?
it brought 500 West indes immigrants to be workers - became a symbol of a new wave of immigration in the 1950s
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what were pull factors for 1950s immigration?
Britain appeared to be the 'mother country' (was unrealistically seen), economic growth + many jobs available in UK - but big organisations (London transport, NHS, British railways) took advantage of their cheap labour
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what were push factors for 1950s immigration?
economic problems in home countries, US immigration restrictions, religious and political persecution
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what was the general reactions and feelings towards immigration? what about others?
general reaction = tolerance but there was racism + discrimination against their use of the dole, NHS, bring crime, unwillingness to mix with communities and prepared to work long hours/low pay so encourages employers
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how is this discrimination seen in the 1950s?
housing -landlords in cities discriminated, so they lived in limited areas so were isolated work - enforced 'colour bar' quota system of only 5% of jobs given to immigrants (Vickers,Tate +Lyle) gov't saw them as economically desirable
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Card 2


What growing unrest under the Liberal government developed before the war?


Ireland, women's suffrage, trade unions

Card 3


Why wasn't David Lloyd George popular with a lot of Liberals?


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Card 4


What did the Labour party evolve from?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How many members and MP's did Labour have in 1906? How many MP's did Labour have in 1911?


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