Carbohydrates 2: energy storage

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 13-02-14 18:28
What do glucose contain a large number of?
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What can the bonds in glucose be broken to form?
Simpler molecules.
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What is glucose broken into in respiration? (2)
Water and carbon dioxide.
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What does the breaking of glucose release?
Energy used to make ATP.
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How is respiration often written?
glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water +energy that is used to form ATP.
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What drives the series of steps in the breaking down of glucose in organisms?
A specific enzyme.
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Animals and plants have enzymes that break down what type of glucose?
Alpha glucose only.
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Why can't animal and plant enzymes break down beta glucose?
Because it has a different arrangement of the H and OH at C1, and enzyme function is based on shape.
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How are ring structure diagrams simplified?
To show only the groups considered.
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Draw an alpha-glucose and a beta-glucose.
Alpha-glucose H above the plane, beta-glucose H below the plane, need to show the O atom before C1 in both.
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How can the structural differences in an alpha- and beta-glucose be seen?
In a 3-D view.
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What are different forms of the same molecule called?
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What can 2 alpha-glucose molecules be bonded together to form?
A disaccharide called maltose.
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What reaction can be carried out over and over again to join glucose molecules together?
A condensation reaction.
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What do many glucose molecules joined together form?
A molecule called amylose.
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Why is a 1,4-glycosidic bond called this?
Because the glycosidic bond between the glucose subunits occurs between carbon 1 of one molecule and carbon 4 of the next.
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Why do the long chains of amylose coil into a spring, and what does this make it?
Because of the shape of the glucose molecules and the formation of the glycosidic bonds, making it compact.
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What happens to iodine during a starch test when it comes in contact with amylose?
Iodine molecules become trapped in the 'coils' of a spring of amylose causing it to change from yellow/brown to blue/black.
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What is an important feature of amylose and similar large molecules?
They're not water-soluble.
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What does starch consist of?
A mixture of long, straight-chain amylose molecules and branched amylopectin.
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Where and what is starch stored in?
It's stored in chloroplasts and elsewhere in the plant cell in membrane-bound starch grains.
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What contain a lot of starch grains?
Plant storage organs.
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What can starch be broken down into, and what can they do?
Glucose molecules, which may then be respired to release energy.
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What is glycogen sometimes referred to, and why?
Animal starch because it's identical to starch.
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In what ways is glycogen identical to starch? (2)
It's made up of alpha-glucose subunits and it's a large molecule that can be broken down to release glucose.
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How does glycogen differ from starch, and what does this mean?
The 1-4 glucose chains tend to be shorter and have more branches, meaning it's more compact and forms glycogen granules.
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In what cells do you especially find glycogen granules?
Liver and muscle cells.
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Why are starch and glycogen described as energy-storage molecules?
Because they're made by bonding thousands of alpha-glucose molecules together.
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What does the stored glucose not affect in a cell, and why is this vital?
It's water potential, which is vital as glucose stored in a cell as free molecules would dissolve and reduce the water potential.
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Define polysaccharide.
Polymers of monosaccharides. They consist of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide monomers bonded together to form a single large molecule.
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What catalyses condensation or hydrolysis reactions in organisms?
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Would polysaccharides fall apart in conditions within the organism and why?
No because they're stable molecules.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What can the bonds in glucose be broken to form?


Simpler molecules.

Card 3


What is glucose broken into in respiration? (2)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the breaking of glucose release?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How is respiration often written?


Preview of the front of card 5
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