Cell Biology and Physiology: Adaptive Immunity

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: KayshaN
  • Created on: 07-11-19 22:24
What are the two types of Lymphocytes and where do they develop?
B Lymphcytes in bone marrow, T Lymphocytes in Thymus
1 of 28
Outline the strutures of the Lymphatic System and their role in the immune system.
Thymus- differentiation of lymphatic stem cells into T cells, Lymph Vessels- transport phagocytes and lymphocytes, Secondary Lymphatic Organs- lymph nodes and spleen, home lymphocytes and macrophages
2 of 28
How are Non-self cells recognised?
antigens elict response from T and B cells, they bind to atigens via antigen receptors, create specific antibidy (EPITOE)
3 of 28
What are the two classes of MHC?
Class 1: on all cells inserted into plasma membrane Class 11: Antigen Presenting Cells
4 of 28
Outline the procedure of Exogenous APCs
phagocyte attracted by chemicals produced by pathogen, recog non self, engulfs pathogen, phagosome and lysososome=phagolysosome, enzymes break down, absorbed, antigens combine MHC, MHC/antigen complex on phago mem
5 of 28
Outline the procedure of Endogenous APCs
digestion antigen into fragments, synthesis of MHC-1 molecules, fragment binds, packaging of antigen-MHC-1 molecules into vesicle, exocytosis, inserted into plasma membrane
6 of 28
How do T-Cells Recognise Antigens?
bind to fragments of APC, recognise MHC, T cell with matching specificty will bind
7 of 28
How do B-Cells Recognise Antigens?
bind to specific antigen: B cell activation, secrete antibody- immunoglobulins
8 of 28
How is the immune response activation after recognition?
diff receptors detect pathogens, activation- cell proliferation, increase numbers specfic B or T cells. Memory= faster response next time pathogen encountered
9 of 28
Immune System Memory 1) Activation T-Cells
activated when bind to MHC to TCR, CD4 and CD8 co-receptors secure MHC-TCR interaction, signals interleukins stimulate B cells
10 of 28
Immune System Memory 1) Activation T- Cells (Clonal Selection)
make copies- proliferate and differentiate, all clones recognise antigen, occurs in secondary lymphatic organs, create effector or memory cells
11 of 28
What is the difference between effectors and memory cells? Include Examples
Effector= destroy antigen e.g. T-helper cells, Mmeory= prepare next encounter, memory B cells
12 of 28
Immune System Memory 1) Activation T-Cells (Next Encounter)
T-helper display CD4 , inactive T-helper recognise, MHC-TCR complex, activates, secrete cytokines, stim cell division
13 of 28
Immune System Memory 1) Activation T-Cells (Current Encounter)
CD8 antigens, cytotoxic T-Cells, recognise antigen binds to MHC1, interleukins, clonal selection
14 of 28
Immune System Memory 1) Elimination Two Pathways
(a) Cytotoxic T-Cells, release granzymes cause apoptosis released microbes phagocytosed (b) Cytotoxic T-Cells release perforines cause cytolysis, microbes destroyed by granulysm
15 of 28
Immunological Surveillence
T Cells recog tumour antigens associated with cancerous cells, antigens not usually displayed on normal cells
16 of 28
Immune System: Role B Cells
Detect and proliferate. Plasma B Cells= Effectors--> secrete antibody IL-4, IL-6 helper and cells encouraged proliferate. Remeber antigen so can react quicker
17 of 28
What do antibodies do?(5)
neutralise, immobolising, agglutination, activating complement, enhancing phagocytosis
18 of 28
Types of Antibody: IgG
80% blood lymph, intestines, enhance phago, trigger complement
19 of 28
Types of Antibody: IgA
10-15% localised protection
20 of 28
Types of Antibody: IgM
5-10% secreted on encounter antigen, activate complement
21 of 28
Types of Antibody: IgD
0.2% B cells antigen receptors
22 of 28
Types of Antibody: IgE
0>0.1% mast cells, basophills, allergy
23 of 28
Outline the struture of antibody's.
Light Chain (V+J segments, variable seq, constant seq) Heavy Chain (V+D+E+J segments, variable seq, 1 of 5 diff constants)
24 of 28
Example: Natural Active
Repeast Exposure to antigen
25 of 28
Example: Natural Passive
IgG from mother to foetus across placenta, IgA from mother to baby during breast feeding
26 of 28
Example: Artificial Active
antigens introduced via vaccination
27 of 28
Example: Artificial Passive
Intravenous injection of antibodies
28 of 28

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Outline the strutures of the Lymphatic System and their role in the immune system.

Back

Thymus- differentiation of lymphatic stem cells into T cells, Lymph Vessels- transport phagocytes and lymphocytes, Secondary Lymphatic Organs- lymph nodes and spleen, home lymphocytes and macrophages

Card 3

Front

How are Non-self cells recognised?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the two classes of MHC?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline the procedure of Exogenous APCs

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Human Biology resources:

See all Human Biology resources »See all Adaptive Immunity resources »