Changes in governance at the centre

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Who was Cardinal Wolsey?
Henry VIII's chief minister
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What did Wolsey's Eltham Ordinances propose?
downsize of the houselhold as it was too expensive, a council of 20 ministers who advised the king on matters from the household to the government of the kingdom
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When were Wolsey's proposals implemented?
After his death
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Why did the link between the household and government become closer under Henry VIII?
Members of the household were appointed to positions of polwer in central government
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How did the household change under Edward VI?
It was dominated by nobility, Someerset and Northumberland who filled the household with their supporters to control patronage and influence Edward
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How did the household chnage under Mary and Elizabeth?
It was staffed by large numbers of women who normally had no political power, courtiers could also influence the queens through their wives
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What was the privy council?
A part of the government staffed by men drawn from nobilikty and gentry who advised the monarch in the running of government
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How did the privy council change under Edward IV and Henry VIII?
Smaller group of councillolrs consulted on a regular basis, promoted more gentry to the 'inner council'
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Why is Henry VII criticised for undermining power of the nobility?
He relied on gentry councillors such as Edmund Dudley
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How did historian G.R Elton describe changed to the privy council under Henry VIII?
'Tudor revolution in government'
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Why was the Pilgrimage of Grace a catalyst for change in the privy council?
Cromwell felt the emergency was such a threat that a council of trusted minsiters should be called to deal with it which Henry agreed to
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Why do some historians believe that the privy council evolved naturally under Henry VIII?
As government became more complex a smaller council of able ministers was a mjore efficient way of dealing with important matters
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How did the noton of collective responsibility change the ruuning of the council after 1540?
All councillors had equal status regardless of titles so no one could dominate as Wolsey and Cromwell had done
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Why did the council become m ore important under Edward VI?
It effrectively governed the country in the absence of an adult monarch with Northumberland as Lord President of the Council
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What was the status of the council under Mary and Elizabeth?
It was an indispensable part of central government
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What was the role of Principal Secretary?
They dealt with the monarch's correspondance and paperwork and had access to them on a daily basis
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How did Cromwell change the role of Principal Secretary?
He turned it into a political position and used it to run government rather than the Lord Chancellor, he chaired meetings, controlled access t o the king, took charge of the royal seal
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What was the cause and impact of dividing the secretaryship?
There was an increased workload facing the king as government became more complex, it led to a decline in the political authority of the Political Secretaryship
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How was William Cecil able develop the secretaryship?
He had administartive experinence and elizabeth trusted him, he controlled all written commuication to and from the queen
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Who succeded Wiliam Cecil as the Principal Secretaryship?
Sir Francis Walsingham, then Robert Cecil
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What was the role of Lord Lieutenant?
Militarfy post responsible for mustering and training troops
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Why did Henry VIII introduce the role of Lord Lieutenant?
Increasing threat of foreign invasion
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How did Lord Lieutenants affect local government?
It added another layer of government to the JP's and sherrifs, but they answered directly to the monarch
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Who did Henry make his first Lieutenants?
The richest and most powerful landlords in the country to organise local defence
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Which events under Henry VIII prompted the appointment of Lord Leiutenants?
War with France and Scotland and the Pilgrimage of Grace
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Which events under Edward VI prompted the appointment of Lord leiutenants ?
Kett's rebellion and the western rebellion
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To what extent did Mary change the role of Lord Lieutenant?
She moved towards making them permanent by dividing the kingdom into ten lieutenancies resposible for military matters in that region, this stopped after her death
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To what extent did Elizabeth chage the role of Lord Lieutenant?
Each country was assigned a lord lieutenant and a deputy when war broke out with Spain and to guard against the threat of rebellion from Catholics
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How did the church influence politics?
In the house of Lords and through the appointment of clerics such as Cardinal Wolsey to run government
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What changed church state relations under Henry VIII?
His quest for an annulment and the reformation
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How did Henry use force the Church of England to support him?
Clerics who opposed him were persecuted, those who supported him were promoted
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What was the Act in Restraint of Appeals?
Citizens could no longer take legal cases to the Pope, this contributed to severing England's ties with Rome
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Act of Supremacy 1534
Confirmed Henry VIII as head of the Church of England, gave his supremacy the authority of statute law so those who disobeyed could be punished
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What was the impact of the Act of Supremacy?
Enhanced the power of the monarch and parliament and altered the relationship between the church and the state, it set a precedent that those who wished to alter acts regarding religion had to go through parliament
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What was the Act of Uniformity?
It enforced the use if the protestant Book of Common Prayer but it retained some elements of Catholicism
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What did the Thirty-Nine Articles set out?
Tha mainly protestant doctrine and ceremonial basis of the Elizabethan Anglican Church
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What was the relationship between Henry VII and parliament?
It was a master and servant relationship, they were called infrequently and only when the king needed new laws or money
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How did the Reformation of Parliament under Henry VIII change the relationship between the crown and parliament?
Parliament was needed to establish an independent English church , they were still only called occassionally, but the idea of king-in-parliament was introduced
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What was the relationship between Mary I and parliament?
She was forced to go through parliament to repeal the act of supremacy, however she was the first monarch to encounter significant resistance from parliament e.g. her attempt at her counter-reformation
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How did the role of parliament change under Elizabeth I?
She reinforced the primacy of the crown over the church through statute raising parliaments importance, MP's began to challenge the crowns right to set limits on parliamentary debates , however generally it worked in harmony with the crown
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What caused growing assertiveness of the commons under Elizabeth?
Growing experience and confidence of MP's who had sat in a number or parliaments and the rise of a small group of radical puritan MP's e.g. Peter Wentworth who were demanding free speech
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How did Elizabeth exercise her power over Parliament?
1576 she restricted its freedom of speech, 1572 she forbade them debating the fate of mary queen of scots, she imprisoned wentworth and cope
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What were the two occassions were the monarch faced a revolt in parliament ?
Mary faced opposition to her religous policies in 1555, Elizabeth facedopposition in 1601 over the issue of monopolies , only after she agreed to resolve it would parliament pass measures requested by Elizabeth
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Card 2

Front

What did Wolsey's Eltham Ordinances propose?

Back

downsize of the houselhold as it was too expensive, a council of 20 ministers who advised the king on matters from the household to the government of the kingdom

Card 3

Front

When were Wolsey's proposals implemented?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did the link between the household and government become closer under Henry VIII?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How did the household change under Edward VI?

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