Chapter 20: Foreign Affairs

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Early years - suitors for Elizabeth's marriage?
Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester), Philip II of Spain, Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles, Prince Erik
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Problems with Dudley?
Horrified William Cecil whose own influence would have been eroded, the marriage would also have political risks (death of Dudley's first wife = suspicious)
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Problems with Philip II of Spain?
Catholic
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Problems with Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles?
Sons of Emperor Ferdinand - both Catholic.
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Problems with Prince Erik?
Protestant but E gave little encouragement.
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The final succession?
James IV, E refused to name a successor.
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Why did Mary flee to England? When?
1567: Married to the Earl of Bothwell who was implicated in the murder of her second husband, Earl of Darnley. Set off a brief civil war so she fled.
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When was Elizabeth's excommunication?
1570: Meant that Catholics in England did not have to obey Elizabeth.
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When was the Ridolfi plot + what was it?
1571: Involved a conspiracy for Mary, QofS, to marry Duke of Norfolk and overthrow E. Norfolk = executed for treason.
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When was the Throckmorton plot + what was it?
1583: Foreign landing in Sussex + overthrow E and replace her with Mary. Foiled by Walsingham's espionage network. Led to bond of Association + worsened Anglo-Spanish relations.
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When was the Parry plot + what was it?
1585: Plan to assassinate E
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When was the Babington plot + what was it?
Mary complicit in plot to assassinate E but exposed by Walsingham. Enabled Burghley to secure Mary's execution.
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Why, by the late 1560s, were relations with Spain deteriorating?
Trading activity of John Hawkins, Netherlands, the English harassing the Spanish, the plots.
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John Hawkins?
Attempted to break the Spanish trading monopoly in the Caribbean. 1568: His fleet was blockaded in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulua because the Spanish were infuriated.
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Netherlands?
Philip II wanted the Netherlands to be under more direct Spanish control to root out heresy, E was under pressure to support Dutch Protestants but was reluctant after France + didn't want to aid rebels who were fighting sovereign authority.
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English harassing Spanish?
1568: Due to a storm, Spanish ships carrying 400,000 florins intended for the Duke of Alba had to seek shelter in English ports. E seized the money which led to Alba seizing English ships in the Netherlands.
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How did Elizabeth contribute to the deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations initially?
Expelled Dutch Sea Beggars from English ports so they were forced to land in the Dutch port of Brielle, this sparked off an anti-Spanish revolt against the rule of Spain and by 1576 all provinces of the Netherlands had risen against the Spanish.
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What did the Dutch rebels produce?
Pacification of Ghent
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What was the Pacification of Ghent?
Called for the expulsion of all foreign troops and the restoration of the provinces' autonomy - favoured by Elizabeth.
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How did the French react to this?
Were prepared to invade, not what E hoped for and she contemplated a marriage to the French Duke of Anjou to retain English influence in the Netherlands.
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Division of the Netherlands?
Union of Ultrecht: Northern + protestant. Union of Arras: Southern + Catholic.
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Spanish relations with the Union of Arras?
Made peace: meant the Duke of Parma could begin his reconquest of the northern provinces.
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How did E adopt a more anti-Spanish position?
Supported the Portuguese pretender, Don Antonio. Knighted Francis Drake for circumnavigating the globe (annoying the Spanish in the process), treated the Spanish ambassador badly.
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What was the Treaty of Joinville? When?
1584: Philip II + Catholic League in France - Guise family led the Catholic League in France so Philip II now had a political motive to support Mary, QofS.
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What did E create in response to the Treaty of Joinville? When?
1585: Treaty of Nonsuch - Alliance w/Dutch Protestants. She also sent troops to the Netherlands under command of the Earl of Leicester.
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What was bad about the troops?
Badly paid, v ill disciplined which alienated the Dutch, English commanders quarelled among themselves, Leicester quarelled with the Dutch, Dutch=betrayed when 2 English officers deserted + joined Parma.
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English success at the start of the Spanish Armada?
April 1587: Successful English attack on Spanish ships in the harbour at Cadiz.
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When did the Armada set off?
July 1588.
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Armada in the English channel?
30th July to 6th August
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What made the Armada turn back?
Unfavourable winds: had to return to Spain by sailing North and then South past Ireland (lost many more ships in the storms)
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After the armada, where was the war fought?
At sea off W Europe, in the caribbean, on the land in France, Netherlands and Ireland.
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War at sea - initial English success then failure?
1595: Captured Cadiz + sinking of 4 galleons. Hawkins + Drake tried to attack Panama as a follow up but this failed + both died.
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Philip's response to the capturing of Cadiz?
He was humiliated + it prevented Spanish ships from sailing to the West Indies - 1596: ordered a fleet to invade England but it was defeated by storms.
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Landings in Ireland?
1599: English naval activity was directed at preventing Spanish landings in Ireland. Little achieved at a high cost.
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Success in the Netherlands?
By 1594: The spanish had been expelled from all of the lands of the northern Netherlands. Dutch revolt = success with English help.
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Overall English success?
English strategic objectives had been achieved: the northern Netherlands had become an independent state, the Southern Netherlands = under Spanish rule w/a degree of autonomy. Therefore, no major foreign power = entrenched in the Netherlands.
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Card 2

Front

Problems with Dudley?

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Horrified William Cecil whose own influence would have been eroded, the marriage would also have political risks (death of Dudley's first wife = suspicious)

Card 3

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Problems with Philip II of Spain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Problems with Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Problems with Prince Erik?

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