Chemistry

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ionisation energy
the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms to produce one mole of 1+ gaseous ions
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ToF mass spectrometry - stage 1
Vapourise - dissolve in a volatile solution
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ToF mass spectrometry - stage 2
Ionis - electrospray - pass through fine needle with + charge, a proton is gained to make metal + ion OR electron impact - gaseous sample bombarded by high energy electrons and 1 electron is knocked off forming a 1+ metal ion
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ToF mass spectrometry - stage 3
acceleration - negative charged plate attracts positive ions accelerates them to same kinetic energy
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ToF mass spectrometry - stage 4
ion drift - particles move towards detector through a vacuum
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ToF mass spectrometry - stage 5
Detection - ions hit metal plate, electrons flow from metal plate to ion producing a current
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homologous series
a group of molecules with the same functional group
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molecular formula
number of each molecule in a compound
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empirical formula
the simplest whole number ratio of each element in a compound
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structural isomers
molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
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chain isomers
carbon chain is arranged differently
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positional isomers
functional group is attached t a different carbon atom
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functional group isomers
same molecular formula but different functional group
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greenhouse effect
earth absorbs uv from sun so temp increases and infrared is emitted so greenhouse gases absorb it
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nucleophiles
an electron pair donor
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stereoisomerism
molecules with same molecular and structural formulas but different arrangement of atoms in space
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E isomers
groups opposite sides
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Z isomers
groups on same side
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electrophiles
electron pair acceptor
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primary alcohols
oxidised to aldehydes then further oxidised to carboxylic acids - oxidising agent = potassium dichromate solution - orange to green
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fermentation conditions
anaerobic conditions, yeast, 25 - 42 degrees
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ethanol from crude oil
uses steam, 500K, 7000kPa, phosphoric acid catalyst
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polymer
long chain molecule made from lots of monomers joined together
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monomer
small molecules that join together to make polymers
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addition polymerisation
formation of long chain molecules from lots of small molecules joined together with no other products
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dehydration
the removal of water
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relative atomic mass
average mass of an atom / one twelfth mass of a carbon-12
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moles
concentration x colume
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moles
mass / relative molecular mass
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Avogadro's law
V∝n provided pressure and temp are fixed (6.022x10^23)
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Boyle's law
V∝1/p provided no of moles and temp are fixed
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Charles's law
V∝T provided no of moles and pressure are fixed
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ideal gas equation
pV=nRT
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percentage yield
(actual yield / theoretical yield) x 100
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percentage atom economy
(mass of desired product / total mass of products) x 100
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enthalpy change equation
mass of substance being heated x change in temp x SHC of substance being heated
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specific heat capacity of water
5.18Jg-1K-1
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standard enthalpy of formation
the enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance is formed from its constituent elements under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states
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standard enthalpy of combustion
the enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states
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standard conditions
101kPa and 298K
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Hess' law
the enthalpy change of a reaction is the same regardless of the route taken
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enthalpy of formation equation
sum of all enthalpy changes of products - sum of all enthalpy changes of reactants
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enthalpy of combustion equation
sum of all enthalpy changes of reactants - sum of all enthalpy changes of products
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mean bond enthalpy
the enthalpy change to break one mole of a specific bond averaged over a range of compounds
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energy change equation
mass x SHC of water x change in temp
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Le Chatelier's principle
if a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium moves in the direction that reduces the disturbance
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equilibrium constant (Kc)
ratio of concentrations of products to reactants
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dynamic equilibrium
forwards and backwards reaction occur at the same time at the same rate
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catalysts effect on equilibrium
has no effect as it increases the rate of reaction equally for both the forward and backwards reaction
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conc effect on equilibrium
increase the conc of one reactant, the equilibrium will shift to the right to oppose the increase in concentration
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pressure effect on equilibrium
increase in pressure, equilibrium will shift to side with the least moles of gas. decrease in pressure, equilibrium will shift to side with most moles of gas
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temp effect on equilibrium
if forward reaction is exo then increase in temp will shift to the left and a decrease in temp will shift equilibrium to right to oppose the increase in temp (opposite for endothermic)
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oxidising agents
accept electrons from another species so they are reduced
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reducing agents
donate electrons to other species so they are oxidised
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oxidation state
show the number of electrons the atom has used in bonding
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disproportionation
a species that has been simultaneously oxidised and reduced
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Vapourise - dissolve in a volatile solution

Back

ToF mass spectrometry - stage 1

Card 3

Front

Ionis - electrospray - pass through fine needle with + charge, a proton is gained to make metal + ion OR electron impact - gaseous sample bombarded by high energy electrons and 1 electron is knocked off forming a 1+ metal ion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

acceleration - negative charged plate attracts positive ions accelerates them to same kinetic energy

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

ion drift - particles move towards detector through a vacuum

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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