Chemistry definitions

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 05-02-17 08:20
Proton number
Number of protons in a nucleus of an atom
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Nucleon number
The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus of an atom
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Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of nucleons
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Relative atomic mass
Average mass of naturally occurring atoms of an element on a scale where the C-12 atom has a mass of exactly 12 units
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Relative molecular mass
The sum of relative atomic masses
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Mole
1 mole of a substance is a specific number of particles that is equal to the number of atoms contained in 12g of Carbon. 12g of Carbon contains 6.023 x 10^23 atoms.
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Electrolysis
The breakdown of an ionic compound, molten or in an aqueous solution, by the passage of electricity
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons/gain of oxygen
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Reduction
Gain of electrons/loss of oxygen
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Redox
Any reaction in which electron transfer takes place
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Oxidising agent
A substance which oxidizes another substance during a redox reaction and is itself reduced.
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Reducing agent
A substance which reduces another substance during a redox reaction and is itself oxidised.
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Acids
Proton donors
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Bases
Proton acceptors
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Petroleum
A mixture of hydrocarbons
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Refining
Separating compounds in petroleum into groups of molecules of similar sizeollecting ducts and loop of Henle
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Cracking
Breaking large molecules into smaller, useful ones by thermal decomposition
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Thermal decomposition
Breaking a compound with heat
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Functional group
The part of the molecule that largely dictates how a molecule will react
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Homologous series
A family of organic compounds in which as the chain gets longer melting and boiling points rise, viscosity increases and flammability decreases. In a homologous series compounds have the same general formula
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Saturated
All carbon-carbon bonds are single
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Isomers
Compounds with the same formula but different structures
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Photochemical reaction
One that requires energy from sunlight
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Polymer
A large molecule made out of smaller units called monomers
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Polymérisation rection
When small molecules called monomers join together to form a large molecule called a polymer
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Synthetic
Made in a factory
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Addition polymerisation
A reaction in which double bonds in molecules break and molecules add on to each other
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Condensation polymérisation
Monomers with different functional groups join together by eliminating a small molecule
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Plastics
Synthetic polymers
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Biodegradable
Contains additives such as starch that bacteria can feed on
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Photodegradable
Contains additives that break down in sunlight
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Brownian motion
Random motion of particles caused by them being struck by other particles
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Diffusion
Movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration in liquid or gas until equilibrium is reached
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Atoms
Smallest particles in nature that cannot be broken down further by any chemical means
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Molecule
A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
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Ion
A particle that carries a charge because of an imbalance of protons and electrons
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Sublimation
Change of state from solid to gas
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Volatile
A liquid that evaporates easily
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Allotropes
Different forms of the same element
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Metallic bond
Attraction between metal ions and free electrons
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Valency
Number of electrons an element's atom loses, gain or shares to form a compound
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Concentration
The amount of solute, in grams or moles, that is dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution
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Empirical formula
Shows the simplest ratio in which atoms combine
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Molecular formula
Shows the actual number of atoms that combine to form a molecule
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Yield
The amount of product you obtain from a reaction
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Brine
Concentrated solution of sodium chloride
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Exothermic reaction
When the energy taken in to break bonds is less than the energy released in making bonds
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Endothermic reaction
When the energy taken in to break bonds is more than the energy released in making bonds
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Bond energy
Energy needed to break bonds or energy released when bonds are made
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Fuel
Any substance we use to provide energy
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Reversible reaction
It is endothermic in one direction an exothermic in another, with the same amount of energy being transferred each time
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Equilibrium
Forward and backward reaction occur at the same rate so there is no overall change in concentrations of products or reactants
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Rate
Measure of change that happens in a single unit of time
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Indicator
Something that indicates whether something is an acid or a base
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Strong acid
All molecules dissociate to form ions
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Weak acid
Only some molecules dissociate to form ions
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Neutralisation reaction
One that gives metal salt and water
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Spectator ions
Ions that are present but don't take part in the reaction
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Titration
When one reactant is slowly added to another in the presence of an indicator
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Flue gas desulfurisation
Treating waste gases with lime in power stations to remove sulfur dioxide.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus of an atom

Back

Nucleon number

Card 3

Front

Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of nucleons

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Average mass of naturally occurring atoms of an element on a scale where the C-12 atom has a mass of exactly 12 units

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The sum of relative atomic masses

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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