AAA Psychology- Cognitive Psychology

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What is the main idea of multi store model?
This theory says there are three different parts to the memory that store information
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How does the sensory memory encode?
Through our senses, from the environment
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How does the short term memory encode?
Acoustically, through attention
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What is the capacity and duration of the short term memory?
Capacity: 5-9 items. Duration: 30 seconds
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How does the long term memory encode?
Semantically, through rehearsal
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What is the capacity and duration of the long term memory?
Capacity: unlimited. Duration: a lifetime.
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How do you keep information in the long term memory?
Elaborate rehearsal
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Supporting evidence of the multi store model?
Clive Wearing showed that the short term memory is 30 seconds long. Baddeley's study showed that short term memory encodes acoustically and long term memory encodes semantically.
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Conflicting evidence of the multi store model?
KF showed that he could make new long term memories while the short term memory was damaged.
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Other theory than multi store model?
This theory is more reductionist because it doesn't go into depth about how each part of the memory works
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Use of the multi store model?
This theory can be used for revision, because it shows rhat people need to do elaborate revision
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Weakness of multi store model?
This theory can't exlplain flashbulb memories (memories of particularly emotiional events) since they don't get rehearsed but are easy to recall
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What is the main idea of working memory model?
This theory says that the short term memory is an active process and there are three different systems in the short therm memory
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What is the phonological loop?
Used for speech and acoustic information. Limited capacity. Contains the articulatory loop and the phonological store
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What is the visuo spatial sketchpad?
Used for colours, shapes and sizes. Limited capacity. Contains the visual cache and the inner scribe
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What is the central executive?
Directs attention between the other two slave systems. Next to no storage but can use all modalities
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What are dual tasks?
The idea that people can't use one system for two tasks, but can use two of the systems for two different tasks
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What is the episodic buffer?
Added to this model in 2000 to explain how the information from short term links to the long term
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Supporting evidence of working memory model?
Robbins chess study showed that people can play chess (which requires visuo spatial sketchpad and central executive) while completing other taks that only require the phonological loop
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Conflicting evidence of working memory model?
Parkin brain scan study showed that there was no evidence for the central executive's existence. However, Bunge also did brain scans and said that it was in the pre frontal cortex
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Other theory than working memory model?
This theory is more holistic than multi store model because it includes in-depth detail about how the short term memory works, instead of just saying it's a unitary store
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Weakness of working memory model?
The episodic buffer being added in 2000 shows that the theory was incorrect when it was first published. However, it is still good that it has been added now
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Testability issue with working memory model?
Mostly uses lab experiments which are lacking in ecological validity.
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What is the main idea of reconstructive memory theory?
This theory says that memory is like a jigsaw and it changes every time it is recalled. It is focused on the active processed and how it is recalled, other than how it is stored
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What are schemas?
Schemas contain information about our past experiences or our perceptions. We use these schemas to fill in the gaps in our memories?
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What is confabulation?
This is filling in the gaps in our memories
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What is rationalisation?
This is changing our memories to have them make more sense
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Supporting evidence of reconstructive memory theory?
The war of ghosts study by Bartlett showed that people altered recall based on their schemas. Allport & Postman's study showed people of 1949 recalled the black man holding the knife to suit the racist ideologies of that time
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Conflicting evidence of reconstructive memory theory?
Wyne and Logie who found that people did recall large amounts of the War of Ghosts story
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Other theory than reconstructive memory theory?
This theory is more reductionist because it doesn't actually talk about how the memories are stored
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Use of reconstructive memory theory?
Eliminated eye witness testimony from being valid in courts. Potentially saved innocent people from going to jail
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Weakness of reconstructive memory theory?
This theory doesn't account for all types of memories. For example, it doesn't explain why flashbulb memories are resistant to being changed.
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What is the main idea of episodic and semantic memory theory?
This theory says that there are two different types of long term memory
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What is the episodic memory?
This is the mental diary, containing events which have happened in our life times
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Can episodic memories be triggered?
They can be triggered by queues which are encoded through the senses. For example, sight of somewhere you grew up
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How are episodic memories encoded?
Episodic memories are encoded temporally. This means all memories are encoded from the time in which they were made with eachother
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What is the semantic memory?
This is the mental encyclopedia, containing facts and knowledge which we have learned
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Can semantic memories be triggered?
They are less likely to be triggered
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How are semantic memories encoded?
New information gets linked to similar information - not related to time
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Card 2

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How does the sensory memory encode?

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Through our senses, from the environment

Card 3

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How does the short term memory encode?

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Card 4

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What is the capacity and duration of the short term memory?

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Card 5

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How does the long term memory encode?

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