Component 1 - Computer Science

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Current Instruction Register / Stores the Instructions currently being used by the CPU
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Memory Address Register / Stores the memory location of where data is read from or written to
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Accumulator -
Register for storing the output of a mathematical process from the ALU
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PC -
Program Counter / Stores the next instruction to be processed by the CPU
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Data Bus -
Transfers data between the CPU and RAM in both directions
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Address Bus -
Transfers data From CPU to RAM / Carries the memory address for the next instruction
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Control Bus -
Carries information and commands from the CPU to other components
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Contents of a Packet -
Source Address / Destination Address / Reassembly data / Tracking / Data itself / Checksum
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Application Layer -
Provides interfaces to the software to allow the user to use the network
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Transport Layer -
Responsible for making sure that data is transferred without errors and reliably
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Network Layer -
Responsible for the ADDRESSING and ROUTING of data
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Data Link Layer -
Sends the data from the Network layer to the Physical layer
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Physical Layer -
Transports the raw Data itself
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Bitmap Graphics / Raster Images -
Made of individual pixels to make up the full image / The larger the Image, the more pixels / Cannot be scaled without loss of quality (Pixelation) / E.G. Photo
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Vector Images -
Computer generated objects are used to make an image / Can be enlarged without a loss of quality / Take up less storage space
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Common Sample rate for Music -
44,100 samples per second
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Record -
A collection of related items / Consists of fields / Can store different data types /
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Array -
An array holds data so that it can be found individually or accessed consecutively / Each data point can be accessed with references - A(1,3) / Static data structure
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Utility Software -
Virus Scanners / Task managers / Firewall / Defragmentation / Compression / System management / Disk scanning
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Virus Scanners -
Scan and monitor a computer system by checking for anomalies and detecting potential threats
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Firewall -
Monitors data traffic coming in to and out of a computer
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Defragmentation -
Software rearranges data on a storage device to make it more efficient
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System Monitoring -
Allows the tracking of users and reporting the applications used by the user on the computer system
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Integrated Development Environment / Acts as a tool for programmers to use to aid the development of software
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Editor -
Allows programmers to edit and add to code that is written as a high level programming language
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Compiler -
Converts source code into machine code all at once and returns all errors at the end / A code only needs to be compiled once
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Interpreter -
Converts line by line of source code into machine code and executes it as it runs / Always requires a interpreter
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Linker -
Allows previously compiled parts of code to be linked together
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Loader -
Loads previously compiled code into the RAM
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Debugger -
Helps to track errors in a code
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The Process of Compilation -
Lexical Analysis / Syntax Analysis / Semantic Analysis / Code Generation / Optimisation
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Assembly Language -
Uses Mnemonics for machine code instructions / Difficult to develop and test / Needs a lot of instructions
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Syntax Analysis -
Each statement is checked for spelling, grammar and to make sure the code makes sense
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Semantic Analysis -
Checking that the meaning of statements is consistent with the rules of the compiler / Making sure all variables are declaired
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Lexical Analysis -
Comments and spaces removed / All key parts of the code replaced with tokens
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Code generation -
Converting into machine code
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Computer Misuse Act 1990 -
It is illegal to: Access files without permission / Gain access to files to use for a criminal purpose / Change or delete files without permission / Prevents fraud and blackmail
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Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 -
It is illegal to intercept phone calls, letters and communications without permission / The government are allowed access to certain information about criminals etc
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Freedom of Information Act 2000 -
Members of the public can request information from public authorities
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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 -
It is illegal to copy or use someone else's data in certain ways if they have copyrighted it
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Data Protection Act 1998 -
Data kept must only be used as stated and edited or deleted if no longer needed
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ROM (Read Only Memory) -
Used for permanent storage of data / Non volatile / Stores the computers firmware
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Flash Memory -
Permanently stores data / Can be rewritten / Non volatile
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Magnetic Disk Drive / HDD -
Relatively fast / Not durable - moving parts / Not portable / Good for permanent storage / large storage space
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Good storage capacity / Durable due to no moving parts / Fast access speeds / Very portable
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Optical Storage -
Used for multimedia files / Durable / Portable / Fast / Smaller storage capacity
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High level Programming Languages -
Easier to use and understand / Built in functions and commands / Similar to natural language / Can be run on different platforms / Python , Java etc
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Low Level Programming Languages -
Machine oriented / Executed faster / Occupies far less memory / Written in Binary / Direct interaction with the computer hardware
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Optimisation -
Reducing the execution time of the code
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Virus -
Attaches itself to a file and causes harm and damage when opened
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Spyware -
Hidden malware that takes and stores data from the computer system
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Trojan -
It appears to be useful software but gives the attacker a backdoor entrance into the computer system
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Worm -
It is a malware that requires no interaction by a human to spread
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Preventing Malware - Methods
Anti-Virus software / Firewalls / Updates and Patches / Avoiding AD’s and Dodgy Emails
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SQL Injection -
It can manipulate databases and trick websites into giving unauthorised access
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DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) -
It will overload a website with requests causing high network traffic causing the site to possible go down
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Password based attack -
Dictionary: uses every word to guess password / Brute force: Tries every combination
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IP spoofing -
It changes the source address of packet data to make it seem like it came from a reliable source
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Human weakness -
Uses social engineering or other methods that require human mistake to avoid security
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Phishing -
A method used to gain private or confidential data by pretending to be an official organisation
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Footprinting -
Gathering public information on a source to make it easier to breech its system
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Cookies -
Small pieces of data generated by a website and stored by the browser
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Router -
Forwards packets of data along a network / Determines the best path for packets
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Hub -
Receives packets and send them to all connected hardware components in a network
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Switch -
Filters and forwards packets to their intended destination
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Bridge -
A bridge connects a LAN to a LAN
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Gateway -
A gateway connects a LAN to a WAN
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Memory Address Register / Stores the memory location of where data is read from or written to



Card 3


Register for storing the output of a mathematical process from the ALU


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Program Counter / Stores the next instruction to be processed by the CPU


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Transfers data between the CPU and RAM in both directions


Preview of the back of card 5
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