Developmental : Week 10: Language

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What is language defined as by Barret for developmental psych?
'A code in which spoken sound is used in order to encode meaning'.
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What is Phonology?
The rules of sounds: specifically the perception and production.
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What are phonemes?
Smallest unit of sound
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How many different phonemes can we produce in English?
~40
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What does a continuous stream of phonemes make?
Speech
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How many different phonemes is the vocal apparatus designed to produce?
~100
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What is orthography?
The rules of letters
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Why do graphemes correspond to phonology?
There is not one sound for every letter of the alphabet, so we need to know the rules of letters.
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How do orthographic rules make a difference to phonemes?
They change the meaning of words and the way they are said.
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What are semantics?
The rules of meaning.
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What are morphemes?
The smallest meaningful unit of language.
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What governs the rules for morphemes?
Grammar and Syntax
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What is grammar?
The rules for structuring language.
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What does syntax do?
Governs order of words.
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What is pragmatics?
The rules for adjusting speech and writing because of commutative function.
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Where are pragmatics of dominant use?
Social conventions, i.e. turn taking and perspective taking.
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What does pragmatics involve, in order to govern rules of turn and perspective taking?
Intonation and Prosody
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What is intonation?
Pitch
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What is Prosody
Tone and stress of voice
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What are the stages of language development?
Prelinguistics ( 0 -12 months) , First words (10 - 18 months), Sentences (18+months)
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What occurs in the first 3 months of life, in stage 1 the prelinguistic stage?
Reflexive vocalisations, i.e. babies first sounds
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What is echolalia?
Continuous repetition of sounds
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What is a dominant feature between 4 and 12 months of the prelinguistic stage?
Babbling
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When does specific babbling like canonical and reduplicated babbling occur?
6 - 9 months
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What type of babbling is a precursor to meaningful speech?
Modulated
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When are meaningful gestures and toys/ objects bout into communication?
~ 8 months
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Why did Basin conclude that mothers do not talk when babies are babbling?
Due to sensitive attunement and gaze coupling
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What is 'Gaze coupling'?
Caregivers and infant take different roles in their dialogue (turn taking)
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When are first words, only considered actual words?
When they are consistent and in the presence of a object/ situation.
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What are first words usually...
Holophrases
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What are holophrases?
Single words that can be interpreted as expressing a whole idea.
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When does an infant begin to incorporate grammar and syntax?
~ 18 months
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When do 3 and 4 word utterances become apparent?
~ 24 - 27 months
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What are grammar and syntax errors referred to as?
' logical errors'
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What is the world health organisation definition of dyslexia?
" a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read".
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What are the two main approaches of language acquisition?
Nativists and Behaviourists
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Whom was the main theorist for Nativist approach to language acquisition?
Chomsky
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Whom was the main theorist for Behaviourist approach to language acquisition?
Skinner
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What theory was put in place to stop the conflict of nativists and behaviourists?
Interactionist
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What are the stages of literacy development as proposed by Frith?
1) Logographic stage, (2) Alphabetic stage, (3) Orthographic stage
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What is the logographic stage?
Visual cue reading
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What do children in the logographic stage believe about word length?
That it represents the size of the object.
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What age does the alphabetic stage occur?
~ 5 years old
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What do children acquire in the alphabetic stage?
Phoneme - grapheme correspondence
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What age does the orthographic stage of literacy development occur?
~ 8 years old
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What occurs in the orthographic stage of literacy development?
Wider knowledge and use of orthographic skills and morphological knowledge.
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Why was Firths literacy development theory discredited?
It was too strict
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How did Piaget connect his sensory motor stage to literacy development?
Sensory exploration is dominant = colourful and feel books for good literacy stimulations.
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How did Piaget connect his per operational stage to literacy development?
Rapid language development is present as children begin to categorise words.
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How did Piaget connect his concrete operational stage to literacy development?
Use of graphs become apparent
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How did Piaget connect his formal operational stage to literacy development?
Language begins to be used abstractly.
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What did Holdaway not believe about literacy development?
Language development is an innate process that will function even without support.
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What 4 components in which corroborate literacy development did Holdaway propose?
1) Observation, (2) Collaboration, (3) Practice, (4) Performance
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What theory is wildly agreed upon in literacy development of children?
Holdaways 4 component model
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What is metalinguistic development?
The ability to talk and think about language
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Semantics is...
The meanings encoded in language
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Which theorist proposed that humans have an innate 'language acquisition device'?
Chomsky
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On what basis did Tomasello critics Chomskys theory?
He found that children learn correct grammatical constructions from adult models.
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What was the difference between 'pidgin' and 'creole'?
Unlike creole, pidgin lacks grammatical structures
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Phonology?

Back

The rules of sounds: specifically the perception and production.

Card 3

Front

What are phonemes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many different phonemes can we produce in English?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does a continuous stream of phonemes make?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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