1. Which is not a feature of Anderson's Global environments through the Quaternary?
- Environments of the tertiary: the north Atlantic region in the early tertiary may have been characterised by a widespread tropical moist forest type.
- The tertiary/Quaternary transition: the Quaternary has long been distinguished from the preceding tertiary by global cooling associated with the expansion of glaciers, particularly across high to mid latitude land masses in the northern hemisphere
- Permanently frozen ground have retreated from extensive areas of Europe, the rainforest expanded, desert sand fields have advanced and retreated, inland lakes have flooded and shrunk and many of the finest mammals have perished in the catastrophe
- Explaining tertiary climates: local and global scales. Britain was at a lower latitude than today, being 10-12’ further south in the Palaeocene
- Human coming of age in the quaternary: Although modern societies are quite capable of shaping their immediate environment to suit their needs, for more than 90% of human history, the environment has been shaping us
- Changes in climate, sea levels, vegetation belts, animal populations, soils and landforms.in the last 20,000 years alone, and humans, as already noted, have been in existence one hundred times longer than that
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2. Which is not a key idea of Field's, Biota and Climate?
- Key biotic variable- body size, abundance, range size, growth form, dispersal and phenology
- Heat light and logistics- plants grow better in warmer places. Individuals can provide new niches for other individuals, eg: trees which have leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, twigs etc.
- Species richness- number of species recorded in a specific area, latitudinal diversity gradient
- The influence of climate on biota- influence of water which is vital for life. Also light for photosynthesis and temperature depending on the blooded nature of the species
- The influence of biota on climate- soil, hydrogeology, geology and atmospheric composition
3. Which is not a feature of Pike et al's Glacial discharge along the west Antarctic Peninsula?
- We assess atmospheric versus oceanic influences on glacial discharge at this location, using analyses of diatom geochemistry to reconstruct atmospherically forced glacial ice discharge and diatom assemblage ecology to investigate the oceanic environm
- We show that two processes of atmospheric forcing—an increasing occurrence of La Niña events and rising levels of summer insolation—had a stronger influence during the late Holocene than oceanic processes driven by southern westerly winds and upwell
- Human influence has changed the frequency of high-impact temperature and precipitation extremes on average over land where there are sufficient observational data to make this assessment
- Suggested mechanisms range from upwelling of warm deep waters onto the continental shelf in response to variations in the westerly winds, to an influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on sea surface temperatures
4. Which is not a key statement in Jackson's What was natural in the coastal oceans?
- Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries
- Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease.
- Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication
- Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began
5. Which is not a feature of Holden's niche, An Introduction to the physical geography and the environment?
- Intraspecific competition is within the same species, it may lead to the exclusion of weaker individuals and explain the patterns of territories which control both feeding and reproduction opportunities for the species.
- ‘R’ strategies are more likely to be found in new or disturbed sites, since they have a good colonizing ability
- Interspecific competition arises between other species and the species share the same spatial distribution but not at the same time
- Competition always had significant effects on distribution patterns, on relative abundances, and on diversity, consistent with the notion that competition has strong effects on community structure
- Reproductive/life strategies: another factor in the patterns and distributions found in ecology relates to the life strategies of species and individuals. These are relayed to elements of the life cycle of s species, specially its means of dispersal
- Niche: the position or role of an animal or plant species within its community in relation to its specific requirement of habitat resources and microclimate conditions (fundamental and realized)
- ‘K’ strategist, these species are more likely to do well in a less disturbed environment, both stress and disturbance may alter a community.