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What is cultural deprivation?
Many working-class and black children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the right culture needed for educational success.
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What are the three main aspects to cultural deprivation?
Intellectual development, Language and Attitudes and values.
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What is intellectual development in cultural deprivation?
Refers to the development of thinking and reasoning skills. It is argued that working class homes lack the books,educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child's intellectual development.
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Who talked about Intellectual development and what did they say?
Douglas- Working class pupils scored lower on tests of ability than middle class pupils because working class parents are less likely to support their childrens intellectual development.
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What did Bernstein and young say about intellectual development?
The way mothers think and choose toys has an influence on their children's intellectual development.
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What is language in cultural deprivation?
Bereiter and Engelmann- Language used in lower class homes is deficient.
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What did Bernstein say about language in cultural deprivation?
The restricted code- Used by the working class,Limited vocabulary,Short unfinished grammatically simple sentences. The Elaborated code- Used by the middle class, Wider vocabulary,Longer complex sentences.
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Why are people that use the restricted code at a disadvantage?
Because the elaborated code is the language used by teachers, textbooks and exams.
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What is attitudes and values in cultural deprivation?
Parents attitudes and values are a key factor affecting educational achievement. E.g. Douglas-Working class parents placed less value on education.
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What did Sugarman say about working class subcultures?
4 key features that act as a barrier to educational achievement.
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What are the 4 key groups that act as a barrier to educational achievement?
Fatalism-a belief in fate,Collectivism-valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual,Immediate gratification-seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future.
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What is present time orientation as one of sugarmans groups?
Seeing the present as more important than the future and so not having long-term goals/plans.
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What is compensatory education?
A policy designed to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to schools and communities in deprived areas.
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What is an example of compensatory education?
Sure start- Tackled poverty and social exclusion, The centers provided integrated education,care,parental support,health services. Its aim to work with parents to promote development to break the cycle of disadvantage.
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What is the myth of cultural deprivation?
Keddie-Describes cultural deprivation as a myth and sees it as a victim blaming explanation, working class children are culturally different not culturally deprived.
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What did troyna and williams say about the myth of cultural deprivation?
The problem is not the childs language but the schools attitude towards it. Teachers have a speech hierarchy.
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What is material deprivation?
Refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income.
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Who talked about the three types of capital?
Bourdieu-Cultural,Educational and economic and a test of bourdieu's ideas.
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What does capital mean?
Refers to wealth, and he argues that the middle class possess more of all three types of capital.
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What is cultural capital?
Refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities in the middle class.
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What is educational and economic capital?
Bourdieu argues that educational, economic and cultural capital can all be converted into one another. E.g. Middle class with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of school.Parents convert their economic capital by paying tuition.
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What is a test of Bourdieu's ideas?
Sullivan- used questionnaires to conduct a survey of 465 pupils in 4 schools, to asses their cultural capital, she asked about a range of activities such as reading,Those who read complex fiction were more likely to be successful at GCSE.
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What did Sullivan conclude with her study?
The greater resources and aspirations of middle-class families explain the remainder of the class gap in achievement.
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Who talked about marketisation and parental choice?
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What did Gewitz say about marketisation and parental choice?
Has greater parental choice of school benefited one social class more than the other? She studied class differences in parental choice in secondary schools.
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What kind of parents did Gewitz identify in her study of class differences in parental choice?
Privileged-skilled choosers, Disconnected-local choosers and Semi-skilled choosers.
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What are Privileged-skilled choosers?
Mainly middle-class parents who used their economic and cultural capital to gain educational success for their children, they could afford to send their children to further away better schools.
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What are Disconnected-local choosers?
Working-class parents whose choices were restricted by their lack of economic and cultural capital and found it difficult to understand school procedures.
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What are Semi-skilled choosers?
Working-class however they are ambitious for their children but they lacked cultural capital which restricted choices.
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What is meant by the term labelling?
Attach a meaning or definition to someone. E.g. teachers may label a pupil as hardworking or troublesome.
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Who talked about labelling in secondary schools?
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What did Becker say about labelling in secondary schools?
He did a study and found teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted the image of the ideal pupil.
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What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
A prediction that comes true simply by the virtue of it being made. Interactionists argue that labelling can affect pupils achievement. The teacher labels the pupil it acts accordingly and internalises the teachers expectation.
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Who did a study of Teachers expectations?
Rosenthal and Jacobson.
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What did Rosenthal and Jacobsons study show?
The self-fulfilling prophecy, They told teachers that certain pupils were smarter than others they picked the pupils at random those identified significantly improved, teachers beliefs had been influenced by the 'results'.
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What is streaming?
Involves separating children into different ability groups/classes/'streams'.
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What is a pupil subculture?
A group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns. They often emerge from being labelled.
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Who talked about differentiation and polarisation?
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What is differentiation?
The process of teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their abilities. E.g. Streaming.
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What is polarisation?
Where pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of two opposite 'poles'.
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Who talks about abolishing streaming?
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What did Ball find in his study of abolishing streaming?
When schools abolished 'banding' the basis for pupils to polarise into subcultres was largely removed However differentiation continued.
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What did Marketisation bring into schools?
Funding, Exam league tables, Competition.
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What is Marketisation?
The policy of introducing market forces of supply and demand into areas run by the state such as the NHS.
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Who talked about the A-C economy triage?
Gillborn and Youdell.
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Who talked about cream-skimming and slit-shifting?
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What is cream-skimming?
Selecting higher ability pupils who gain the best results and cost less to teach.
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What is slit-shifting?
Off-loading pupils with learning difficulties who are expensive to teach and get poor results.
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What are the three main aspects of Cultural deprivation with ethnic differences in achievement?
Intellectual and linguistic skills, attitudes and values, family structure.
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What is Intellectual and linguistic skills?
This can be a main cause of under-achievement. It is argued that many children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation.
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What did Bereiter and Engelmann say about Intellectual and linguistic skills?
The language spoken by low-income black American families as inadequate for educational success.
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What is attitudes and values?
The lack of motivation as a major cause of the failure of many black children.
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What is family structure and parental support?
Theorists argue that this failure to socialise children adequately is the result of a dysfunctional family structure.
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What did pryce say about family structure and parental support?
Family structure contributes to the under-achievement of black Caribbean pupils. He compares black and Asian pupils, asian pupils were better because of their culture.
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Who talked about Asian families?
Driver and Ballard.
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What did Driver and Ballard say about Asian families?
Asian family structures bring educational benefits. Asian parents have more positive attitudes towards education and higher aspirations for their childrens future and are more supportive.
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What are some criticism of cultural deprivation?
Driver says it ignored the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.
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What did Flaherty say about ethnic minorities failure in education being a result of?
Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are over three times more likely than whites to be the poorest fifth of the population.
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What are the main aspects of Internal factors and ethnic differences in achievement?
Labelling and teacher racism, Pupils responses to subculture, The ethnocentric curriculum, Institutional racism, Selection and segregation.
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What is labelling and teacher racism?
Studies show that teachers often see black and asian pupils as far from the 'ideal' pupil. For example black pupils are seen as disruptive and asian as passive.
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What are some of the impacts of labelling on black children?
Gillborn found that teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour, Gillborn+Youdell argue this is because of 'racialised expectations'.
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What are some of the effects of labelling on Asian pupils?
Teachers hold ethnocentric views,Teachers assume Asian pupils have a poor grasp of english and left them out of class discussions, causing them to feel isolated.
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What are Pupil responses and subcultures?
Teacher racism and negative labelling however studies show pupils respond in different ways and shows negative labels do not always lead to the self fulfilling prophecy.
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What did Fuller do a study on?
Black girls in secondary school the girls were high achievers in a school where black girls were put in low streams.
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What happened in Fuller's study?
Instead of accepting negative labels, the girls did not seek the approval of teachers,they worked hard. It shows pupils succeed even when they dont conform, they were determined to succeed-No self-fulfilling prophecy.
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Mac and Ghail did a similar study to Fuller however what did their study show?
Did a study of black and asian sixth form students did not accept negative labels they instead gained greater academic commitment which helped them overcome the stigma's.
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What did Mirza do a study on and what did it show?
Did a study on ambitious black girls who faced teacher racism however they failed to achieve their ambitions because their coping strategies restricted their opportunities and resulted in under-achievement.
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What is the ethnocentric curriculum?
Seeing or judging things in a biased way from one particular culture
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What did Troyna and Williams say about the ethnocentric curriculum?
The curriculum in british schools is ethnocentric as it gives priority to white culture and the english language.
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What is institutional racism?
Troyna and Williams make a distinction between individual racism and institutional racism and describe the ethnocentric curriculum as an example of institutional racism.
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What is individual racism?
That results from the prejudiced views of individuals.
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What is institutional racism?
Discrimination that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate.
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What did Gillborn say about selection and segregation?
That marketisation has given greater scope to select pupils and this puts some ethnic minority pupils at a disadvantage.
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What are the main aspects of external factors and gender differences in achievement?
The impact of feminism, Changes in the family,Changes in women's employment,Girls changing perceptions and ambitions.
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What does the impact of feminism have on external factors and gender differences in achievement?
Feminism has raised women's expectations and self-esteem.
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Why has changes in the family caused girls attitudes towards education to change?
An increase in divorce rate,Lone parent families, cohabitation, women have begun to take on the bread-winner role, and creates role models for girls.
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What are some of the changes in women's employment?
The equal pay Act, Sex discrimination laws, The amount of women now in employment, Pay gap has reduced. This encourages girls' to see they have a future.
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What are girls' changing ambitions?
Sharpe- 1974 interviewed girls and they all gave priorities to having a family, 1990- Interviewed girls again of the same age and they saw their future as an independent woman.
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What are the main aspects of Internal factors and gender differences in achievement?
Equal opportunities policies, Positive role models in schools, GCSE+Coursework, Teacher attention and classroom interaction, Challenging stereotypes, Selection and league tables.
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What are equal opportunities policies?
GIST(Girls into science and Technology) encourages girls' to pursue careers in these non-traditional areas. The introduction of the National Curriculum so girls and boys study most of the same subjects.
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What is now happening with regards to Positive role models in schools?
There has been an increase in the amount of female teachers.
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What is now happening with GCSE's and Coursework?
Mitsos and Browne- Girls are more successful at coursework because they are more organised than boys, They argue that these types of factors give the advantage to girls as they mature earlier with being able to concentrate for longer.
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What is challenging stereotypes in the curriculum?
Text book material.
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What are the two views of girls' achievement?
Liberal-Celebrate the progress made so far. Radical Feminists-The system still remains patriarchal,e.g. sexual harassment of girls continues at school.
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What is said about Boys and literacy?
The gender gap is mainly the result of boys' poorer literacy and language skills, parents spend less time reading to their sons.
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What is the globalisation and decline of traditional male jobs?
Mitsos and Browne-Claim that this decline in male employment opportunities has led to an identity crisis for men. Many boys believe they have no future.
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What is the Feminisation of education?
Sewell-Boys fall behind because education has become feminised. Schools do not nurture masculine traits such as leadership.
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What are laddish subcultures?
Laddish subcultures contribute to boys' under-achievement. If boy's appeared to be nerds they would be subjected to homophobic verbal abuse.
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What are some of the explanations of gender differences in subject choice?
Early socialisation, Gendered subject images, Peer pressure, Gendered career opportunities.
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Why does early socialisation effect gender choice?
Byrne shows that teachers encourage boys to be tough and show initiative, Girls are expected to be quiet,helpful,clean and tidy.
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What are gender domains?
The tasks and activities that boys and girls see as male or female territory.
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What are some gendered subject images?
Science teachers are more likely to be men.
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Why is subject choice normally because of peer pressure?
Other boys and girls may apply pressure to someone if they disapprove of their choice e.g. boys opt out of performance arts.
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What is the functionalist perspective on society?
Based on the view that society is a system of independent parts held together by shared values.
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What did Functionalist Durkheim talk about?
Creating social solidarity and teaching specialist skills.
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What is social solidarity according to Durkheim?
Individuals must feel themselves to be part of a single community,without social solidarity cooperation would be impossible as everyone would be selfish.
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How does the education system help social solidarity according to Durkheim?
It transmits society's culture-it's shared beliefs and values.In school we have to cooperate with people who are not family/friends, we have to interact with others according to imporsonal rules applied to everyone.
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What are specialist skills according to Durkheim?
Modern industrial economies have a complex division of labour, where the production usually involves the cooperation of many different specialists it encourages social solidarity, Education teaches people specialists knowledge they need for labour.
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What is meant by the term meritocracy?
An educational/social system where everyone has an equal opportunity to succeed and where individuals rewards and status are achieved by their own efforts rather than being ascribed by their gender,class or ethnic group.
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Who talked about Meritocracy?
Parsons-Agrees with many of Durkheims ideas and sees school as the 'focal socialising agency' acting as a bridge between the family and wider society, this bridge is needed because the family and society operate differently,Children learn to cope.
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What is the New right's perspective on education?
Conservative political perspective,The favour the marketisation of education, they believe that some people are naturally more talented than others, they say the state take a 'one size fits all' approach to education..
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What new right sociologists talked about education and what did they say?
Gewirtz and Ball- Argue that competition between schools benefit the middle class, who can use their economic and cultural capital to gain access to more desirable schools.
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What is meant by particularistic standards?
Standards that only apply to an individual child.
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What is new vocationalism?
Education selects the most able and suitable to fill the most important positions and gives these individuals the greatest rewards.
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What do marxists see the state as doing?
A means by which the capitalist class maintain the dominant position, Althusser says the state consists of two elements which serve the middle-class.
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What are the two elements Althusser identifies?
The repressive state apparatuses-which maintain the rule of the bourgeoise by force or threat of it. E.g. the police,army to repress the working class. The ideological state apparatuses-Maintain the bourgeoisie-controlling peoples ideas,values+belief
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What is the myth of meritocracy?
Functionalists argue that the education system is meritocratic-Bowles and Gintis claim that meritocracy is and ideology legitimating inequality by falsely claiming equal opportuinities.
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What are two examples of repressive and ideological state apparatuses?
Repressive-Police,Army. Ideological-Education and religion.
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What do Bowles and Gintins mean by the correspondence principle?
Similarities between school and the workplace e.g. the hierarchy of bosses and workers
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What is meant by post-Fordism?
A production system based on flexible specialisation using advanced technology, and uses skilled workers.
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What is the triparite system?
Children were to be selected and allocated to one of three types of secondary school, according to their attitudes and abilities the children took an 11+ exam.
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What is the comprehensive system?
It aims to overcome the class divide of the tripartite system and make education more meritocratic.
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What is parentocracy?
'rule by parents' it is associated with marketised education systems which are based on ideology of parental choice in school. Middle class benefit from this.
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What is the myth of Parentocracy?
By disguising the fact that schooling continues to reproduce class inequality, the myth of parentocracy makes inequality in education appear to be fair and inevitable.
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What has the labour party done to reduce inequality?
Raising the school leaving age, Introducing policies such as sure start into cultually and material deprived areas.
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Card 2


What are the three main aspects to cultural deprivation?


Intellectual development, Language and Attitudes and values.

Card 3


What is intellectual development in cultural deprivation?


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Card 4


Who talked about Intellectual development and what did they say?


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Card 5


What did Bernstein and young say about intellectual development?


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