EMPA revision.

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  • Created by: Molly
  • Created on: 06-05-14 15:22
What is a risk?
A measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard
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What are 5 lifestyle choices that may affect chances of developing cancer?
Smoking, Diet, Obesity, Physical activitity sunlight.
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What is an atheroma?
A fatty deposit that forms within the wall of an artery.
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What is the fatty deposit that makes up an atheroma made up of?
Either cholesterol, fibres, or dead muscle cells.
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What do atheromas do?
They bulge into the lumen of the artery causing it to narrow so that the blood flow through it is reduced.
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What 2 conditions can be caused by an atheroma?
Thrombosis, Aneurysm.
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What is a thrombus?
When an atheroma breaks through the endothelium of the blood vessel.
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Why is a thrombus dangerous?
Because the thrombus may block the blood vessel, reducing or stopping the flow of blood to tissues that it serves.
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What sometimes can happen to a thrombus?
It can be carried away from the place of it's origin and and lodges in and blocks another artery.
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What is an aneurysm?
When a weakened part of the cell wall swells it forms an aneurysm, a balloon like, blood filled structure.
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What is a brain aneurysm called?
A stroke.
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Why does smoking cause heart disease?
Because the carbon monoxide binds with oxygen to form carboxyhaemoglobin which means the heart must work faster to deliver oxygen to muscles, increases risk of CHD. Also, nicotine increases the production of adrenaline which increases heart rate.
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What are life factors that contribute to high blood pressure?
Prolonged stress, certain diets, lack of exercise.
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List 3 reasons why high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease?
1. There is already a higher pressure in the arteries, the heart muscle has to pump more blood so more prone to failure. 2. More likely to develop an aneurysm. 3. To resist the higher pressure, the walls become thicken & may harden, restricting blood
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What is blood cholesterol?
An essential component of membranes that must be transported in blood.
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What are high density lipoproteins?
Remove cholesterol from tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion, and they help protect arteries against heart disease.
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What are low density lipoproteins?
LDL's transport cholesterol from the liver to tissues, including the artery walls, which they infiltrate, leading to the development of atheromas and hence heart disease.
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What is a mitosis?
A type of nuclear division that occurs in somatic body cells.
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What kind of cells does mitosis produce?
Two identical daughter cells.
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What are the four stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
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What happens in prophase?
The chromosomes become visible and the nuclear envelope disappears.
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What happens in metaphase?
The chromosomes arrange themeselves at the equator of the cell.
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What happens in anaphase?
The chromosomes migrate to the opposite side of the poles attached to the spindles.
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What happens in interphase?
The DNA replicates and the chromosomes appear.
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Why is mitosis necessary?
Differentiation, growth, repair.
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How are root hairs efficient?
They have a large surface area to volume ratio. They are thin, and so have a short diffusion distance.
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What is the water potential of the soil?
High water potential.
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What is the water potential of the root hair?
Low water potential.
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What are the two pathways in which water travels in to a root hair cell?
Apoplastic pathway. Symplastic pathway.
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How does the apoplastic pathway work?
Water is drawn into the epodermal cells, it pulls more water along with it due to the cohesive properties of water. The mesh-like structure of the cellulose cel wall of these cells has many water filled spacies and so there is little or no resistance
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Where does the symplastic pathway take place?
In the cytoplasm of the cells of the cortex as a result of osmosis.
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What happens in the symplastic pathway?
Water entering by osmosis increases the Ψ, which is now higher than the cortex. Water moves by osmosis into the first cell and has dominoe effect. The previous cell now has a lower Ψ and so water from the soil moves in by osmosis.
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What is the casparian *****?
A section of the endodermal cells which prevents water from travelling further.
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What lowers the Ψ of the xylem?
The active transport of salts in to the xylem by active transport.
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Why does the active transport of salts only take place in living tissues?
Because it requries active transport and therefore requires a living tissue.
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What is root pressure?
The lowering of the Ψ of the xylem which causes water to move in by osmosis along a Ψ gradient.
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What is the transpiration pull?
When water evaporates from the surface of a leaf it pulls the water molecules behind it because of the cohesive properties of water.
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List four factors that affect transpiration?
Light, temperature, wind, humidity.
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How does wind affect transpiration?
Transpiration is faster because water vapour is removed quickly by the air and so lowers the Ψ of the outside of the leaf.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are 5 lifestyle choices that may affect chances of developing cancer?


Smoking, Diet, Obesity, Physical activitity sunlight.

Card 3


What is an atheroma?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the fatty deposit that makes up an atheroma made up of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do atheromas do?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Farhat Kamal


These are amazing! I have my EMPA tomorrow, thank you so much for sharing! God bless

:) PurpleJaguar (: - Team GR


These notes are so helpful! 

And they don't tell you exactly what is in the exam therefore it is not cheating :)

Thanks so much!

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