english speach features

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The ways in which words are pronounced. Accent can vary according to the region or social class of the speaker.
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Adjacency pairs
Parallel expressions used across the boundaries of individual speaking turns. They are usually ritualistic and formulaic socially. For example: "How are you/"Fine,thanks".
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Turn taking
A turn is a time during which a single participant speaks, within a typical, orderly arrangement in which participants speak with minimal overlap and gap between them. The principal unit of description in conversational structure.
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A reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing - e.g can't = cannot, she'll = she will. See also Elision.
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The distinctive grammar and vocabulary which is associated with a regional or social use of language.
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Words such as "this", "that", "here", "there" which refer to things that are backwards or forwards or outside a text - a sort of verbal pointing. Very much a context dependent feature of talk.
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Discourse marker
Words and phrases which are used to signal the relationship and connections between utterances and to signpost that what is said can be followed by the listener or reader. Examples include: "First", "on the other hand", "now","what's more"
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The omission or slurring (eliding) of one or more sounds or syllables - e.g gonna = going to; wannabe = want to be, wassup = what is up.
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False start
This is when the speaker begins an utterance, then stops and either repeats or reformulates it. Sometimes called self-correction. See also Repairs.
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Items which do not carry conventional meaning but which are inserted in speech to allow time to think, to create a pause or to hold a turn in conversation. Examples are "er", "um", "ah". Also called voiced pause
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Words phrases which soften or weaken the force with which something is said e.g "perhaps", "maybe", "sort of", "possibly", " I think".
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An individually distinctive style of speaking.
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A social dialect or variety of speech used by a particular group, such as working-class or upperclass speech.
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Interactional Talk
Language in conversation used for interpersonal reasons and/or socialising.
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Non-fluency features
Typical and normal characteristics of spoken language that interrupt the "flow" of talk. Some examples: hesitations, false starts, fillers,repetitions (although these can also be used for emphasis), overlaps and interruptions.
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Paralinguistic features
Related to body language - it is the use of gestures, facial expressions + other non-verbal elements (such as laughter) to add meaning to the speaker's message beyond the words being spoken.
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Phatic Talk
Conversational utterances that have no concrete purpose other than to establish or maintain personal relationships. It's related to small talk - and follows traditional patterns, with stock responses and formulaic expressions: "How are you/ "Fine", "
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Transactional talk
Language to get things done or to transmit content or information (used when the participants are exchanging goods and/or services)
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An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by the speaker's silence.
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Vague language
Statements that sound imprecise and unassertive. E.g - " and so on", "or whatever", "thingummy", "whatsit".
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Card 2


Adjacency pairs


Parallel expressions used across the boundaries of individual speaking turns. They are usually ritualistic and formulaic socially. For example: "How are you/"Fine,thanks".

Card 3


Turn taking


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Card 4




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Card 5




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