Gender

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  • Created by: annie1405
  • Created on: 05-09-17 18:28
Heteronormativity
A set of norms or expectations based on heterosexuality e.g. the idea that in a gay couple one partner should be 'masculine' and the other 'feminine'
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Sex
Refers to biological distinctions e.g. genitals
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Gender
Refers to socially expected characteristics based on sex and is closely related to sexuality describing the characteristics that society thinks is masculine or feminine
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Semantic Derogation
The process by which words may acquire negative connotations over time. In terms of sexist language it is found that words referring to women have undergone semantic derogation (Muriel Schulz) e.g. Masculine - Master Feminine - Mistress
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The generic Masculine
Where the male gender or pronoun (he, his, man) is used to adress both men and women as English doesn't have a 3rd person singular pronoun. Makes women seem invisible and discuises womens participation in the world. 'Mankind'
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The Sapir - Whorf Hypothesis (Language relativism)
The theory that the structure of a language affects its speakers world view. Therefore language not only describes the social world but helps to create it. Language is constructive as it creates and constructs how we see the world.
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The Deficit Model
Robin Lakoff - Theres such thing as womens language which contributes to womens lower status and weaker position in society. Womens language includes: Hedges, fillers, tag questions, superpolite forms, fewer expletives than men (Due to socialisation)
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O'Barr and Atkins
Deficit model alternative explanation - not womens language but powerless language - situational power (American courtroom trials)
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Holmes
Deficit model - womens language shows desire to co-operate
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The Dominance theory
Zimmerman and West 1975 - Men seek to dominate women in mixed sex conversation by interruptions. In 11 conversations recorded men used 46 interruptions (96%) and women used 2 (4%). Reflects womens restricted linguistic freedom and male dominance.
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Dale Spender
Disagrees with dominance model as she found that generally men and women interrupted equally as men only interrupted more marginally and that interruptions done reflect dominance. Spenders research wasnt accurate enough because of such a small sample
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The Difference Theory
Deborah Tannen 'You just dont understand' - Male and female communication is cross cultural communication and they speak different genderlects e.g. status vs support, orders vs proposals. But her research's anecdotal not scientific-confirmation bias
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Maltz and Borker 1982 - Girls
The difference theory - Girls learn to: Create+maintain relationships of closeness and equality, criticize others in an acceptable way, accurately interpret other girls speech.
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Maltz and Borker 1982 - Boys
The difference theory - Boys: Assert a position of dominance, attract+maintain audience, assert themself when another speaker has the floor
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The Diversity Model
Deborah Cameron 2002 The myth of Venus and Mars- Gender is one of many features that influences language use. Race, class, age, education, occupation, sexual orientation. Challenges dichotomy of male and female language use and says theres a spectrum
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Bing and Bergvall
Diversity Model - need to acknowledge individual differences and emphaises diversity rather than dichotomy
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Beattie
Disagrees with dominance model as she found that generally men and women interrupted equally as men only interrupted more marginally and that interruptions done reflect dominance. Spenders research wasnt accurate enough because of such a small sample
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Refers to biological distinctions e.g. genitals

Back

Sex

Card 3

Front

Refers to socially expected characteristics based on sex and is closely related to sexuality describing the characteristics that society thinks is masculine or feminine

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The process by which words may acquire negative connotations over time. In terms of sexist language it is found that words referring to women have undergone semantic derogation (Muriel Schulz) e.g. Masculine - Master Feminine - Mistress

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where the male gender or pronoun (he, his, man) is used to adress both men and women as English doesn't have a 3rd person singular pronoun. Makes women seem invisible and discuises womens participation in the world. 'Mankind'

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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