Geographical Skills- AS

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  • Created by: aminaamri
  • Created on: 13-05-17 10:29
What are the 6 stages of a fieldwork investigation?
1- identifying a question, 2- developing a strategy, 3- Collecting data & recording data. 4- Data presentation, Stage 5- Analysing/ Interpreting our data, 6-conclusion & evaluation.
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Describe stage 1 of a fieldwork investigation.
Identifying a question= Scale, feasibility, based on wider theories, definition/ relationship.
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Describe stage 2 of a fieldwork investigation.
Develop a strategy. Desk research, fieldwork- measurements needed. Observation, interview. Primary and secondary data.
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What is Secondary data?
Data has been previously published. Online possibly.
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What are the advantages of secondary data?
Available quickly, saves environmental destruction caused by investigation it. The research is usually valid and accurate. Increases sampling size.
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What are disadvantages of secondary data?
Doesn't fit your study exactly. May not be reliable.
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What is Primary data?
Data that you have collected yourself to fit your question.
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What are the advantages / disadvantages of primary data?
Advantages= Reliable, tailored to your study. Disadvantages= Takes time, resources. Sampling needs to be used to remove biased.
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Describe how you would carry out a risk assessment?
Pilot study- Pre-visit to practise technique and evaluation the area. Create a risk assessment table taking into account all risks.
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Describe stage 3 of a fieldwork investigation.
Collecting & recording data. Primary and secondary data. Field work= reliability, pilot studies, sapmling and risk assessment
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Describe stage 4 of a fieldwork investigation.
Data presentation. Maps, charts, graphs and annotated pictures
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Describe stage 5 of a fieldwork investigation.
Analysing the data/ interpreting the data. Identifying patterns or anomalies from the presented data. Descriptive statistical techniques: Mean, mode median and range. Spearmans rank, trend lines, mann whitney, chi squared & critical values tables.
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What is mann whitney?
Used to determine whether there is a significant difference between 2 sets of data. Only works with small data sets.
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What is Chi squared?
Comparative tests. It compares observed and expected distribution and shows if there is a significant difference between them. To test if outcomes match the theory.
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Describe stage 6 of a fieldwork investigation.
Conclusion & evaluation. Conclusion to set out main findings and to sate if you have achieved aims & objectives. Evaluation= limitations & improvements in all the stages.
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What may cause errors?
Equipment being basic or lack of experience using it, Bias, Weather conditions may cause an error, Interpretation, Human error.
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What are the 3 types of sampling we used?
Random, Stratified and Systematic.
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What is random sampling?
Every item or individual in a population has an equal chance of inclusion.
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What is stratified sampling?
is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata.
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What is Systematic Sampling?
is a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval.
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What are advantages & disadvantages of Random sampling?
Advantages: Easy to do, Representative, removes errors in classification. Disadvantages: Could be bias, may exclude groups, does not take other things into account.
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What are the advantages & disadvantages of Stratified sampling?
advantages: removes sampling bias,ensures nothing is over or under represented. Disadvantages: Can't be used for everything, Time consuming and tedious.
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What are the advantages & disadvantages of Systematic sampling?
Advantages: representative, Simple, everything evenly sampled. Disadvantages: Not competely random, If the trait is also periodic the results are not reliable.
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What 2 methods of collecting data did we use in the Lake District?
Measuring Striations and Glacial Sediment Analysis.
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How did you measure striations?
Used a compass. Lay the compass in the direction of the striation set (red ned in red bed). Worked out the way they were moving.
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How did you analyse the glacial sediment?
While in situ-use compass to measure the way it is facing. Measure A,B,C axis with a ruler. Power scale of roundness and concentric circle card- Measures the minimum radius of curvature .
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How is measuring striations relevant to the Hypothesis?
Find out glacial movement direction in the Conaston Valley. Moving East
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What were limitation of measuring striations?
Safety, Difficult to access the middle of the rock, bias, difficult to identify striations.
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How was the Glacial sediment analysis relevant to the aim?
Tells us how the ice shaped the landscape, whether it was glacial or periglacial. Tells us about the glacier
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What were limitations/ problems of glacial sediment analysis?
Site was difficult to access. Guessing orientation of the rock when in situ. Biased picking of the rocks. Ruining the landscape.
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What was the aim of the Our field investigation?
To investigate glacial features & processes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Identifying a question= Scale, feasibility, based on wider theories, definition/ relationship.

Back

Describe stage 1 of a fieldwork investigation.

Card 3

Front

Develop a strategy. Desk research, fieldwork- measurements needed. Observation, interview. Primary and secondary data.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Data has been previously published. Online possibly.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Available quickly, saves environmental destruction caused by investigation it. The research is usually valid and accurate. Increases sampling size.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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