Haematology Mini Quiz Points (CP1)

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  • Created by: NDumps97
  • Created on: 15-05-19 17:48
Anaemia = Hb < ___ g/L in M and < ___ g/L in F
Anaemia = Hb < 135 g/L in M and < 115 g/L in F
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What type of anaemia is koilonychia (what is this?) a sign of?
Spoon-shaped nails - it's a sign of IDA (iron deficiency anaemia)
2 of 26
What is the main cause of anaemia?
Iron deficiency
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What are the main causes of iron deficiency?
Bleeds - mostly menorrhagia (heavy periods) or GI bleeds
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Deficiencies in what two things can cause macrocytic anaemia?
Macrocytic aneamia is caused by anything which essentially prevents normal erythrocyte production - including deficiencies in B12 and folate.
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Name two conditions which might cause normocytic anaemia
Acute bleed (Hb is a conc so initially there is no change in size) and anaemia of chronic condition (anaemia associated with numerous chronic conditions). Also: renal anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, marrow failure, pregnancy, connective tissue disorders
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On a blood film for someone with microcytic anaemia red cells with be: microcytic and hypochromic - what do these two things mean?
microcytic = small and hypochromic = paler (less Hb)
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Microcytic blood film will also show poikilocytosis and anisocytosis. What do these terms mean?
Poikilocytosis (variation in the cells shape) and anisocytosis (variation in size)
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In microcytic anaemia describe what will happen to serum iron and serum ferritin. What does serrum ferritin represent?
Serum iron and ferritin will decrease. Serum ferritin represents the amount of stored iron.
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Anaemia of chronic disease can be normocytic or microcytic - true or false?
True
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How would values of soluble transferrin receptor and total iron binding capacity change if someone developed in someone with IDA? How would this differ in anaemia of chronic disease?
IDA: soluble transferrin receptor and total iron binding capacity would increased. In anaemia of chronic disease: STR = normal and TIBC = decreased
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What would serum iron be like in someone with anaemia of chronic disease.
Serum iron would be decreased.
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Describe how B12 / folate deficiency leads to macrocytic anaemia.
B12 is a coenzyme needed to activate folate (B9). Activated folate is needed for DNA synthesis. If deficient for any reason then it DNA fails to 'stop' erythrocyte production therefore producing large cells.
13 of 26
Which organ is a large store of B12? How is B12 normally excreted? Is the majority of B12 reabsorbed or excreted?
The liver is a big store of B12 which is excreted in bile. 70% of B12 is reabsorbed.
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What needs to bind to B12 to prevent it from being protelytically degraded and what cell secretes this?
Intrinsic factor needs to bind to B12 - IF is secreted by gastric parietal cells.
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What is pernicious anaemia?
This is an autoimmune condition (autoantibodies attack parietal cells or IF-B12 complex) which results in B12 deficiency.
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True or false: B12 deficiency is associated with peripheral neuropathy
True! It can cause degeneration of the spinal cord
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What are reticulocytes? Are they larger or smaller than erythrocytes?
These are immature RBCs - they are larger.
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In bone marrow failure will there be increased or decreased a) Hb b) reticulocytes c) WBCs d) platelets
They will all be equally low
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What is the type of anaemia called where the body fails to produce enough blood cells?
Aplastic anaemia
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What does agranulocytosis mean?
complete absence of circulating neutrophils
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What drug which is used to treat hyperthyroidism has a side effect of agranulocytosis?
Carbimazole (common exam question)
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What is leucocytosis?
An increase in white cells in the blood
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Do bacterial or viral infections cause neutropenia (low neutrophils)?
Viral infections = neutropenia. Bacterial infections = neutrophilia.
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What are some other causes of neutrophilia? (high neutrophils)
Bacterial infection, inflammatory conditions, disseminated malignancy, surgery, burns, myeloproliferative conditions, corticosteroid therapy
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Would sepsis and bone marrow failure cause neutrophilia or neutropenia?
These would cause low neutrophils (neutropenia)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What type of anaemia is koilonychia (what is this?) a sign of?

Back

Spoon-shaped nails - it's a sign of IDA (iron deficiency anaemia)

Card 3

Front

What is the main cause of anaemia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the main causes of iron deficiency?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Deficiencies in what two things can cause macrocytic anaemia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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