health and husbandry revision

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how do you take dogs or cats temp with a mercury or digital thermometer
look on revison guide as cannot fit it on here
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what is a normal temp for a dog?
38.3 – 38.7
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Why might an animal have an abnormal temperature range?
• Pain • Infection • Exposure to extreme temperatures • Inflammation
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What is a pulse?
A heart beat will force the blood through the artery and creates a bulge in the artery. ‘The rate at which the artery bulges can be measured by touching it with your fingers.’
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Where are the four places you can find a dogs pulse?
• Femoral artery – inside of thigh • Digital artery – just above the paw • Coccygeal artery – round the rectum • Lingual artery – base of tongue
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How do do you dogs pulse rate using Femoral artery?
Find artery, using two fingers. Then set a timer for 15 seconds and count the number of pulses. Once time is up, times the number by 4 and this will give you the beats per minute.
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what is the normal pulse rate for a dog and cat?
Normal range for dog – 60-100 beats per minute. Normal range for cat – 160-200 beats per minute.
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what is respiration?
The exchange of gases between an animal and it environment.
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What two gases are involved in respiration?
Carbon dioxide out and oxygen in.
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How to take an animals respiratory rate?
Take your dog’s respiration rate when it is calm. Count how many breaths your dog takes for one full minute. Watching their sides inflate and deflate. Use a stopwatch.
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what is the average respiration rate for a dog?
Average is 15-30 breaths per minute.
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what does Capillary refill time assess?
Blood flow
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how to do CRT
With one finger press down on pets gums. By doing this you are forcing out all the blood from that area cause the spot to go a whiter colour. When you release the colour show refill almost immediately.
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what is the normal CRT for a cat and dog?
The normal time it takes for the capillaries to refill in the dog and cat is 1.5 seconds.
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what can A prolonged capillary refill time (CRT) tell you about your animal?
A prolonged capillary refill time (CRT) occurs when the blood is not flowing adequately. This can occur if the pet is in, or is going into, shock. It can also occur in certain heart diseases.
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What are the aims and purpose of Animal Welfare Act 2006 and Animal Health and Welfare Act (Scotland) (2006)?
To promote the welfare of animals and prevent harm through measures such as introducing a duty of care on those responsible and removing animals for situation where they are suffering. prevent animal cruelty, promote animal welfare and protect.
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what are the aims and purpose of Welfare of Animals (Transport) Order 2006
The Regulation aims to improve animal welfare through raising transportation standards. In particular, it provides significant improvements in enforcement capability in respect of all species.
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What are the aims and purpose of The Welfare of Animals at Market Order 1993
specifies that owners and keepers have a duty of care to ensure animals are protected at all times - 5 welfare needs. Applies in all situations even at markets and shows. protect animal from suffering and injuries.
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What are the aims and purpose of The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966
The acts aim is to make sure the right qualified veterinary surgeon is doing the jobs best suited to their ability and states the acts that non veterinary surgeons can and cannot do.
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What are the aims and purpose of The Welfare of Farmed Animals Regulations 2007
Provides for general requirements as to the conditions in which all farmed animals are bred or kept.
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what are the aims and purposes of The Welfare of Animals Regulations 1999 (slaughter or killing).
To minimise pain, distress or suffering of an animal when it’s killed.
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Name 5 animal legislations
look at previous
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What are 3 common types of bacteria?
Tetanus Leptospirosis Brucellosis
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Draw the stucture of bacteria and write a little bit about it
Draw the stucture of bacteria and write a little bit about it
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How do bacteria reproduce?
Mutilpy by binary fission. A single bacteria cell makes a copy of DNA and grows large in size. to doubled contents are pushed down to either end of cell. then a small fissure emerges at the centre, eventually splitting it into to identical cells.
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Name 3 common viruses
Avian influenza, Bluetounge virus, Herpesviruses
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Draw the stucture of viruses and write a little bit about it
Draw the stucture of viruses and write a little bit about it
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What is the replication of viruses?
look on table that is drawn
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What is a common type of fungi and where is it found?
Aspergillosis is an infection caused by the Aspergillus fungus, which is commonly found in the environment in substances such as dust, hay, and grass. Happens to dogs. Yeast infection in dogs
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Draw the stucture of fungi and write a little bit about it
Draw the stucture of fungi and write a little bit about it
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How do Fungi reproduce?
Like bacteria, yeast cells reproduce asexually. However, they do this by producing a bud. This is a new cell that eventually breaks away from the parent cell.
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What does the growth rate of yeast depend on?
The growth rate of a yeast population depends on: the availability of food the temperature the pH the removal of waste products. The growth rate of yeast doubles for every 10°C rise in temperature. This continues until the optimum temperature
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What are 2 examples of protozoa?
Malaria Protoxoan infection
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How do protozoa reproduce?
Binary fission, the most common form of reproduction, is asexual;
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What are parasites?
Parasites are organisms that live on or in a host organism. The parasite benefits from this arrangement, but the host suffers as a result. For example, tapeworms and roundworm are parasites.
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What are ectoparasites?
The Ectoparasites, or parasites that live on the dog or cat, are probably the most common and most recognized of all parasites. Parasites within this category include fleas, ticks, mites, and lice.
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What are endoparasites?
The Endoparasites, or parasites that live within the dog or cat, are often less obvious to owners but typically cause more severe disease than Ectoparasites. The most common parasites within this category include roundworms, tapeworms
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Draw the fleas life cycle
Draw the fleas life cycle
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Draw the tapeworms life cyle
Draw the tapeworms life cyle
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What is prophylaxis?
Treatment given or action taken to prevent disease.
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What are signs and sypmtoms of fleas?
• Itching • Red sore skin • Fur loss • Flea dirt • Fleas on coat
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What are signs and symptoms of worms?
• Weight loss • Diarrhoea • Vomiting • Increased hunger • Coughing • Worms in faeces
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What are the treatment for fleas
• Apply spot on or spray on every month – vet approved. • Don’t bathe or allow animals to swim within 48 hours. • Treat house and car
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What are the treatment for worms?
• Tablet given every 3 months – vet approved. • Pick up faeces regularly.
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What is the direct method of disease transmission?
– when infected animal comes in to contact with suitable animal e.g lying together, grooming etc.. Viruses use this method as they cannot survive without a host.
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What is the indirect method of disease transission?
No physical contact and is spread by some form of infectious agent. E.g. Fomites, vectors, biological vectors, and mechanical vectors.
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What is the airborne method of disease transmission?
Diseases that are spread through the air via droplets. Tiny pathogens are expelled by coughing, sneezing.
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What is the vectors method of disease transimission?
– animate (living organisms) that carry disease E.g. mosquitoes.
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What is the fomites method of disease transmission?
Inanimate objects that carry diseases e.g. kennel walls, grooming equipment. Fomites may be contaminated by blood, faeces, urine, saliva containing pathogens from infected animal.
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what is the enviroment method of disease transmission?
the environment can influence the spread of disease (temp, humidity and moisture)
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What are the 8 methods of disease transmission?
Direct, indirect, airborne, vectors, fomites, inhalation, ingestion, environment
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What is the difference between Active immunity and Passive immunity?
Active immunity is when a pathogen enters body either artificial or natural and pathogen produces antibodies. Passive is when antibodies from another organism enter the body.
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How does Active immunity work?
Once you have been infected with a particular pathogen and produced antibodies against it, some of the white blood cells remain. If you become infected again with the same pathogen, these white blood cells reproduce very rapidly and the pathogen is d
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How does Passive immunity work?
Is when antibodies from another organism enter the body. The ‘loaned antibodies help prevent or fight certain infectious diseases. The protection that’s this gives is short term, usually only lasting a few weeks but it helps protect right away.
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What is an example of Natural Active immunity?
NATURAL – pathogens enter the body in a natural manner e.g. catching a cold
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What is an example of Artifical active immunity?
ARTIFICAL – the pathogen is introduced into the body as a vaccine
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What is an example of Natural Passive immunity?
NATURAL – antibodies enter the person in a natural manner e.g. antibodies cross the placenta into the foetus
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What is an example of Artifical Passive immunity?
ARTIFICAL – antibodies are injected into a person e.g. anti-tetnas injection.
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What is the difference between signs and symptoms?
Signs – can be recognized by family, patient and doctor e.g. skin rash. They are objective. Symptoms - can only be recognized by patient and are subjective. E.g. stomach ache.
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What is an asymptomatic carrier?
A person or another organism that has contracted an infectious disease but shows no symptoms and they can transmit the disease to others.
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What is notifiable disease?
A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.
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Why do some diseases need to be reported?
The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.
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What are the two types of notifiable diseases?
They can be endemic – already present in the UK, such as bovine TB or exotic – not normally present in the UK, such as foot and mouth disease.
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What does DEFRA stand for?
Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
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How do you report a notifiable disease?
Complete a notification form immediately on diagnosis. Send the form to the proper officer within 3 days, or notify them verbally within 24 hours if the case is urgent. Let DEFRA know by •by phone •letter •encrypted email •secure fax machine.
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What are 4 examples of notifiable diseases?
• Rabies • Tetanus • Whooping cough • Malaria
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What is rabies and what are the signs and symptoms?
infection of the brain and nerves - • Fever. • Seizures. • difficulty swallowing and breathing • •inability to move (paralysis) • Aggressive behaviour
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What is the treatment for rabies and what is the control?
Clean wound with soapy water, seek professional medical help. Doctor should clean wound. Will be given a series of vaccines - 5 doses over 28 days. Control - Vaccination if travilling to area where rabies is common.
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What is swine flu and what are the signs and symptoms?
Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of pigs. • barking cough • decreased appetite • nasal secretions • listless behaviour
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What is the treatment of swine flu and how is it controled?
Most cases don’t require medication for treatment. don’t need to see a doctor unless at risk for developing medical complications from the flu. You should focus on relieving your symptoms and prevent the spreading. be prevented with yearly vaccine.
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What are zoonotic diseases?
A zoonotic disease is a disease that can be spread between animals and humans. Zoonotic diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. These diseases are very common.
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What are 4 examples of zoonotic diseases?
• Salmonella • Leptospirosis • Avian influenza • Rabies
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What should an animal health plan include? 11
Animal identification details,Date of observation, Time of observation, Weight, Previous history to include: current medication, breeding, allergies, Medication administered, Behaviour, health status, diet - appetite, urination/defication, Exercise
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What is topical medicine administration?
Topical - They are applied to the skin on various parts of the body depending on the reason for the medication.
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What is Enteral medicine administration?
Enteral – Feeding or drug administration by digestion processes of a tube. Enteral administration involves the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. Methods of administration include oral, sublingual.
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What is Parenteral administration?
include intravenous (injection into a vein), subcutaneous (injection under the skin), intramuscular (injection into a muscle), inhalation (infusion through the lungs), and percutaneous (absorption through intact skin).
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What are some first aid situations?
• Shock • Road Traffic Collision (RTC) • Convulsions • Fractures • Wounds • Dislocations • Choking • Poisoning • Burns and scalds
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What is some first aid equipment?
• Selection of bandages • Cotton wool • Sterile dressing materials • Adhesive tape • Rectal thermometer • Tweezers • Gloves • Scissors • Hand sanitizer • Eye wash, antiseptic solution
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Name the 4 layers involved in Bandaging
Primary layer, Secondary layer, tertiary layer and Top layer (co-flex)
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What the primary layer for?
This is the wound dressing and prevents the bandage from sticking to the wound. The dressing must be sterile and stay in close contact with the wound.
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What is secondary layer for?
This is the supporting and padding layer, this layer should provide padding, comfort and immobilisation. Padding prevents the bandage being applied to tightly and prevents the development of pressure sores. E.g. soffban
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What is the tertiary layer for?
This is the protecting and securing layer, it holds the other materials in place and provides extra support and protection from contamination. E.g. conforming bandage such as k – band.
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What is the top layer for?
Added for extra support – called co-flex
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How do you bandage a limb - step by step.
write on paper as too long to fit in here.
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What are 10 animal welfare requirements when planning accommodation?
• Space o Size • Stocking densities • Social needs of animals • Life stages of animals • Opportunities for movement and exercise • Purpose for which the animal is being kept • Minimising stress • Provision of food and water • Enrichment.
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What are 6 environmental requirements when planning animal accommodation?
• Humidity • Ventilation • Pollution • Prevailing weather • Temperature • Sunlight
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What are the general accommodation plans?
•Location taking into account predator/ prey contact •Location of services e.g. electricity, water • Weather elements e.g. direct sunlight, rain, extremes of temperature •Ease of access •Waste disposal, Security •Design and construction, costs
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What would you need to prepare to have a suitable accommodation for chosen species?
• Standard and alternative fixtures and fittings • Bedding materials • Lifestyle • Life stage of animal • Number of animals to minimise stress and to promote animal welfare • Suitable for long or short term use • Enrichment.
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What would the maintenance be to have a suitable accommodation for chosen species?
•Safety and security checks, • Regular checks for, broken fixtures, protrusions, faulty or damaged electrical and lighting sources damage due to damp, oxidisation, wear and tear. •Cleaning routines, • in line with regulations
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When evaluating animal accommodation, what are you looking for?
• Cleanliness and suitability of accommodation • Health and wellbeing of animals • Suitability of construction materials, bedding materials • Environmental factors – correct temperature, humidity etc
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When planning movement of animals what do you need to do?
Look at the: Reasons for movement Methods of movement Equipment available Time of day to move Size and weight of aniamsl Health status of animal Safety of area Legislation e.g. the welfare of animal transport order (2006),
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By the code of practive, What are the 5 animal welfare needs?
• need for a suitable environment • need for a suitable diet • need to be able to exhibit normal behaviour patterns • need to be housed with, or apart, from other animals • need to be protected from pain, suffering, injury and disease.
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Card 2

Front

what is a normal temp for a dog?

Back

38.3 – 38.7

Card 3

Front

Why might an animal have an abnormal temperature range?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a pulse?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where are the four places you can find a dogs pulse?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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