History- How successful was the League in the 1920s?

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 09-03-17 09:21
What did Wilson want the League to be?
A world parliament which met on regular bases
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What did Clemenceau want the League to be?
Strong, with its own army
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What did Lloyd George want the League to be?
A simple organization that met only in emergencies
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What was Wilson's ideal plan for the League?
All major nations would join. They would disarm. Any dispute would be taken to the League. They promised to protect one another and accept the League's decisions
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What were the problems with Wilson's plan in general?
It was prepared in great hurry. Critics say that he was too arrogant and didn't actually know a lot about the problems in Europe.
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Why didn't USA want to join the League?
Those with German ancestors hated the Treaty, they didn't want to send their soldiers to war, they were afraid US trade would suffer most, they were anti-empires
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What happened to Wilson in 1920?
He became seriously ill after a stroke
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What did the Republicans campaign for?
USA to become isolationist
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What was the name of the republican candidate?
Warren Harding
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What were the aims of the League according to the Covenant?
Discourage aggression, encourage countries to co-operate, encourage disarmament, improve living and working conditions
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What was the most important article in the Covenant?
Article 10
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What was Article 10 about?
Collectie security. The members would prevent war by defending each other
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What would the League do to a country that attacked another country?
They would impose economic sanctions or in extreme cases use military force
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Where was the League's home?
Geneva, Switzerland
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Did the League have its own army?
No, but it could call on the armies of its members
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Why weren't Britain and France suited to be the leaders of the League?
They didn't have the resources to fill in the gap left by USA, they wouldn't have joined if they knew US wouldn't, they weren't influential enough, they just didn't want to be
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What was Britain more interested in instead of the League?
Rebuilding trade and looking after the Empire
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What was France more interested in instead of the League?
Weakening Germany.
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What was the problem between France and the League?
France was ready to bypass the League in order to strengthen its position against Germany
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Was USSR invited to the League?
No
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When did the USSR join the League?
1934
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What was the most important body in the League?
The Council
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How often did the Council meet?
5 times a year or more often in case of emergency
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Who were the permanent members of the Council in the 20s?
Britain, France, Italy and Japan
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How were the temporary members of the Council elected?
By the permanent members. Elected for 3 years
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What did the permanent members of the Council have?
A veto
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What was the main purpose of the Council?
Solving disputes between countries.
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What could the Council use against a country that disobeyed it?
Economic sanctions, moral condemnation, military force
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What was the Assembly?
The League's parliament. Contained a member from each country
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What could the Assembly vote on?
Admitting new members to the League, appointing people to the Council, League budget, ideas put forward by the Council
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How often did the Assembly met?
Once a year
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Decisions by the Assembly had to be...
unanimous
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What was to play a key role in the League's role in settling disputes?
The Permanent Court of International Justice
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Where was the Permanent Court of International Justice based?
Hague, Netherlands
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What was the weakness of the Permanent Court of International Justice?
It couldn't make sure that its decisions were followed
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What advice did the Court give to Assembly/Council?
Legal advice
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What was the Secretariat?
A sort of civil service which kept all the documents of the League
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What was the ILO?
International Labour Organization
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How often the the International Labour Organization meet?
Once a year
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What was the aim of ILO?
To improve working conditions of people throughout the world
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What did the ILO do?
Collected statistics and tried to persuade members to follow its advice
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Name the two commissions in the League
Mandates commission and slavery commission
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Name the two committees in the League
Health committee and refugees committee
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What was the purpose of the Mandates Commission?
It was a team of experts who would report to the League on how the mandates were treated. They had to make sure that Britain and France weren't acting in their own self-interests
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What was the purpose of the Refugees Committee?
To help refugees get back to their homes or settle down in new ones
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What was the purpose of the Slavery Commission?
To abolish slavery around the world
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What was the purpose of the Health Committee?
To educate people about health and health and sanitation; to fight disease
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Why did Poland and Lithuania get into a dispute?
Poland wanted the city of Vilna but it became the capital of Lithuania. In 1920 Poland took control over Vilna
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How did the League try to solve the dispute between Poland and Lithuania?
It recognized Poland as the aggressor and told it to leave Vilna
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Was the League successful in solving the dispute between Poland and Lithuania?
No. Poland did not listen to the League and continued war.
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Why wasn't Poland made to leave Vilna?
Poland was too close to France, Britain and France were more interested in themselves, the League had no army
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What agreement did the League create between Poland and Lithuania. This agreement was ignore by Poland.
Suwalki agreement
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What was the dispute between Germany and Poland?
It was over Upper Silesia, in 1921. The region contained the mixture of Poles and Germans. Before, Poles faced racism and discrimination. The Treaty of Versailles drew up a plebiscite, which turned violent.
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How was the dispute between Poland and Germany solved?
The position of the opposing units became the new border and League confirmed it
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What was the dispute between Finland and Sweden?
Over the Aaland Islands, in 1921. Sweden wanted them but had no political power. Finish civil war broke out in 1918 and the Islands reported exaggerated disturbances. Sweden sent its troops. Finland ask Germany for help but didn't get any.
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How did the League solve the Aaland dispute?
The islands remained part of Finland but were allowed to be self-governed
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Was the League successful in solving the Aaland dispute?
Yes. Sweden and Finland accepted its rule
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What Italian general from the Conference of Ambassadors was killed?
Tellini
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When did Mussolini invade Corfu?
31 August, 1923
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How many people were killed when Mussolini invaded Corfu?
15
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How did the League react to Mussolini's invasion of Corfu?
Swiftly. The Council condemned Mussolini. It suggested that Greece should pay the compensation and the money would be held by the League. They would go to Italy if the murders were found
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How did Mussolini react to the League's decision about Corfu?
He refused to accept the League's ruling and said that the Conference of Ambassadors (where he had more power) should solve the problem
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Why couldn't Britain and France stop Mussolini in 1923?
The British were ready to act but the French backed the Italians because they needed protection from Germany. Britain was afraid to act alone.
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So how did the Corfu dispute end?
The Italian ambassador in the commission for the CoA was the only one to blame the Greeks and the Council's ruling was changed. The Greeks had to apologize and pay compensation. Mussolini withdrew from Corfu.
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Was the Corfu dispute a success for the League?
Nope.
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What document was made after the Corfu incident? What did it state?
The Geneva Protocol. It stated that those members in dispute had to accept the League's ruling
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What was the problem with the Geneva Protocol?
Britain never signed it because the new Conservative government was afraid that Britain would be forced to accept something it didn't support
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What was the dispute between Greece and Bulgaria?
In 1925 Greek troops invaded Bulgaria after a Greek soldier was killed on the border while trying to retrieve his dog.
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How did the League react to the dispute between Greece and Bulgaria?
The Council acted quickly and demanded for both sides to stand down and for Greek forces to withdraw. Greece had to pay compensations and was threatened with sanctions.
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Why was the League successful in resolving the dispute between Greece and Bulgaria?
Because Britain and France stood together
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What document helped refugees to travel?
The Nansen passport
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How many prisoners returned to their homes through the Refugees Committee?
40 000
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Why was it very difficult for the Refugees committee to work?
Because it was short of funds
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What successes did the ILO have?
It banned poisonous white lead from paint and limited working hours for small children.
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Why was it difficult for the ILO to work?
Because it was short on funds plus not many countries actually listened to it like when it tried to introduce a 48 hour working week
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What successes did the Health Committee have?
It sponsored research into infectious diseases with institutes from Singapore, London and Denmark. This institutes developed vaccines agains leprosy and malaria. The committees campaigns reduced cases of yellow fever.
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What Committee is believed to be the most successful one in the League?
the Health Committee
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How did the League fight illegal drug trade?
It blacklisted four German, Dutch, French and Swiss companies
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How many slaves did the League free from Sierra Leone?
200 000
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How far did disarmament get in the 20s?
At the Washington Conference of 1921 USA, Britain and France agreed to limit their navies
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Why was then failure of disarmament damaging to the League?
Because no other country disarmed to Germany's extent so it wasn't fair. It also showed how countries didn't trust each other
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What was the greatest achievement of the League in the 20s?
It helped diplomats develop an international mindset
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Clemenceau want the League to be?

Back

Strong, with its own army

Card 3

Front

What did Lloyd George want the League to be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was Wilson's ideal plan for the League?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the problems with Wilson's plan in general?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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