Human anatomy and physiology - introduction

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  • Created by: aarafa11
  • Created on: 06-04-20 15:22
What does anatomy include
body structure & relationship, dissection, imaging techniques
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What does physiology include
body function
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What is the order of the organisation of body
CHEMICAL, cells, tissue, organs, organ system
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what does the tissue level include
epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
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what is epithelial tissue
gland and tissue covers exterior and interior
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what is connective tissue
Supports body & connects its port
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what is nervous tissue
Transmits nerve impulses
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what is muscle tissue
Helps the body to move
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types of organ system
nervous(brain, spinal, nerves); integumentary (hair, skin, nails, sweat, oil gland); cardiovascular (heart, blood, vessels)
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what does the nervous system do (function)
generates action potential to regulate body activities, detects change in the internal/external environment, interprets & responds to muscular contraction and glandular secretion ,
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what does the integumentary system do (function)
serves barrier against infection and injury; regular body temp, eliminates waste, detects external environment
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what does the cardovascular system do (function)
transports O2, nutrients & hormones to the body; fights infection
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whats included in the cellular level
muscle, nerve, blood ect
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what does the skeletal system do (function)
supports the body, protects internal organs, allows movement, stores minerals and lipids, provides a site for blood formation
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what is included in the skeletal system
bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons
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what does the muscular system do (function)
works with the skeletal system to produce involuntary movement, helps circulate blood, move ffod to the digestive system
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what is included in the muscular system
skeletal muscle, smooth, cardiac
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what does the respiratory system do (function)
provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration, removes excess co2 from the body
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what is included in the respiratory system
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
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what does the digestive system do (function)
converts food into simplier molecules that can be used by the cells, absorbs food, eliminates waste
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what is GI tract
Gastrointestinal tract
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what is included in the digestive system
organs of the GI tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, rectum); accesory organs
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what does the excretory system do (function)
produces, stores, eliminates urine; eliminates waste
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what is included in the excretory system
skin, lungs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder
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what does the endocrine system do (function)
controls growth, development and metabolism; maintains homeostasis
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what is included in the endocrine system
Hormone glands (pineal gland, hypothalamusthyroid, thymus, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, pituitary); ovaries; testes
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what does the reproductive system do (function)
produces reproductive cell; females-nurtures and protects developing embryo
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what is included in the reproductive system
testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, penis, ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
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what does the lymphatic/immune system do (function)
helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and return the fluid to the circulatory system
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what is included in the lymphatic/immune system
white blood cells, thymus, lymph nodes, lymph vessels
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distinguishing living from non-living
6 process: metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction
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what is metabolism
Sum of chemical process, catabolism/breakdown of chemical substances into simpler components. Anabolism/build up of chemical substances from smaller components
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what is responsiveness
Body's ability to detect & respond to changes, decrease body temp, respond to sound, nerve (electrical signals), muscle cells (contracting)
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what is movement
Motion of whole body; organs, cells & tiny subcellular structures; leg muscle move the body, growth
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what does it mean to grow in body size
increase in existing cells, number of cells, or both; bone growth materials between cells increase
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what is differentiation
Development of cells from an unspecialised to specialised; cells have specialised structures and function that differ from precursors cells; stem cells give rise to cells that undergo differentiation
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what is reproduction
Formation of new cells ( growth, repair, replacement); production of new individual
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what is homeostasis
A condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment. dynamic condition, narrow range in compatibility
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blood glucose level range
70 - 110 mg of glucose/dL of blood
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how maintaining homeostasis
by feedback inhibition- automated and very stable. negative feedback - stimulus produce response that opposes the original stimulus .
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homeostasis in the body
integration of all organ systems at all times. e.g: body temp
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what maintains body temp
hypothalamus monitors temp of skin an organs
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what does the hypothalamus do when it detects a drop in temp
blood vessels constrict to reduce heat loss; skeletal muscle contarct involuntarily to shiver = body temp increases
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how is homeostasis disrupted
physical insults (intense heat, lack of O2); internal environment changed (blood glucose); physiological stress; mild/temporary imbalance; intense/prolonged infection
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where is the hypothalumus
in the brain, near the pituitary gland
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what is the feedback system
Cycle of events (monitoring & remonitering = controlled condition); receptor, control centre, effector
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what is a controlled condition
Each monitored variable
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what is a receptor
Monitors changes int he controlled condition; send input to the control centre
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what is the control centre (brain)
Sets a range of values to be controlled; evaluates inputs received from receptors and generated output command; nerve impulses; hormones
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what is the effector
Receives output from the control centre; produces a response or effect that will change the controlled condition.
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where can you find an effector
nearly every organ or tissue
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whats the difference between positive and negative feedback
N) reverses a change in the controlled condition (blood pressure). P) strengthen or reinforces a change in ones body's controlled condition (child birth)
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how to regulate blood pressure
stimulus increases BP; Baroreceptors detect; send nerve impulses to the brain; responds by sending nerve impulses to heart and blood vessels; BP drops
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what is baroreceptors
receptors that detects blood pressure drop
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how positive feedback works for normal childbirth
uterine contraction causes vagina to open; stretch sensitive receptors in cervix send impulse to brain; oxytocin is released into the blood; contraction enhanced; baby pushed further down the uterus; cylcles end after birth
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Card 2


What does physiology include


body function

Card 3


What is the order of the organisation of body


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Card 4


what does the tissue level include


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Card 5


what is epithelial tissue


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