Human Biology

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Blood is made up of 55%:
liquid plasma
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Blood is made up of 45%:
formed elements
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Erythrocytes are:
red blood cells responsible for transportation
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Erythrocytes have:
no nuclei or organelles
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Leukocytes are:
white blood cells responsible for immune system regulation
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Leukocytes have:
nuclei and organelles
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Thrombocytes are:
platelets responsible for blood clotting
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Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the:
vena cava
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The right side of the heart contains:
deoxygenated blood
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Blood flows from the vena cava to the:
right atrium
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Backflow to the right atrium is prevented by the:
tricuspid valve
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Blood flows from the right atrium to the:
right ventricle
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The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through the
pulmonary artery
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Backflow to the right ventricle is prevented by the:
semilunar valves
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Oxygenated blood is pumped to the heart by the:
pulmonary veins
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Oxygenated blood enters the heart through the:
left atrium
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Backflow to the left atrium is prevented by the:
mitral valve
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Oxygenated blood leaves the heart through the:
aorta
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The aorta pumps blood to the _______, where it is then pumped throughout the body:
coronary arteries
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During atrial and ventricular diastole:
aortic valves open, semilunar valves close
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During atrial systole and ventricular diastole:
blood is pumped from the atria to the ventricles
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During ventricular systole and atrial diastole:
semilunar valves open, aortic valves close
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Arteries have:
narrow lumen, thick walls, more collagen, and high pressure
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Veins have:
wide lumen, thin walls, less collagen, and low pressure
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During systole, blood vessels:
stretch
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During diastole, blood vessels:
recoil
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The outermost layer of arteries and veins is made up of:
connective tissue with collagen fibres
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The innermost layer of arteries and veins is made up of:
endothelium
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The middle layer of arteries and veins is made up of:
muscle and elastic tissue
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The capillary is made up of a single layer, the:
endothelium
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During inhalation, the _____________ move the ribs upwards and outwards and the volume of the thoracic cavity is increased.
External intercostal muscles
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During exhalation, the _____________ move the ribs upwards and outwards and the volume of the thoracic cavity is decreased.
Internal intercostal muscles
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When carbon dioxide levels rise:
pH falls, breathing rate increases
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When carbon dioxide levels fall:
pH rises, breathing rate decreases
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The air we breathe in and out with each breath is called the:
tidal volume
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The maximum amount of air one can inhale or exhale is their:
vital capacity
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What hormone stimulates the uptake of glucose by all cells?
Insulin
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Insulin ______ blood glucose concentration:
decreases
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What hormone stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver?
Glucagon
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Glucagon ________ blood glucose concentration
increases
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Type 1 diabetes occurs when
the body cannot produce insulin
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Type 2 diabetes occurs when
insulin is produced, but the cells cannot respond to it
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Re-absorption of "useful" material and urea occurs in the:
proximal convoluted tubule
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Excess water is removed by the:
loop of henle
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The descending limb of the loop of henle:
is impermeable to ions
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The ascending limb of the loop of henle:
contains Na+ and Cl- pumps and is impermeable to water
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The filtrate and the tissue fluid are most concentrated at the:
bottom of the loop pf henle
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The final Na+ reabsorption takes place in the:
distal convoluted tubule
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When ADH is low, the collecting duct is:
less permeable to water and a large volume of urine is produced
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When ADH is high, the collecting duct is:
more permeable to water and a small volume of urine is produced
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The afferent arteriole has a _______ diameter than the efferent arteriole, pushing fluid into the nephrons. (Ultrafiltration)
larger
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Glomerular filtrate forms in the:
renal capsule
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Water soluble hormones
bind to plasma membrane receptors and trigger nuclear or cytoplasmic responses
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Lipid soluble hormones
bind to receptors inside the cell and trigger only nuclear responses
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What part of a neuron carries impulses towards from the cell body?
Dendrites
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What part of a neuron carries impulses away from the cell body?
Axons
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During depolarization:
Na+ channels open, making the inside of the cell positive
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During repolarization:
K+ channels open, making the inside of the cell more negative
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The post-synaptic neuron receives neurotransmitters through:
chemical gated ion channels
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The pre-synaptic neuron stores neurotransmitters in:
synaptic vesicles
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Sensory neurons:
carry impulses from the peripheral sensory organs to the central nervous system
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Motor neurons:
carry impulses from the central nervous system to effector organs; present in the peripheral nervous system
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Interneurons:
process impulses in the brain and spinal chord; connect sensory an motor neurons
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Interneurons are part of the:
central nervous system
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Sensor and motor neurons are part of the:
peripheral nervous system
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The phrase "fight or flight" is often used to describe the:
sympathetic nervous system
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The phrase "rest and ruminate" is often used to describe the:
parasympathetic nervous system
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Lymphocytes are formed and mature in the:
bone marrow and the thymus
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Secondary lymphoid organs are responsible for:
monitoring the contents of the extracellular fluids or mucosal surfaces
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Primary lymphoid organs are responsible for:
producing lymphocytes
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Card 2

Front

Blood is made up of 45%:

Back

formed elements

Card 3

Front

Erythrocytes are:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Erythrocytes have:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Leukocytes are:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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